Reatha Clark King

Born: April 11, 1938 | Pavo, GA, US

Reatha Clark King was born in Pavo, Georgia, the second of three daughters. Her father was a sharecropper who never learned to read or write, and her mother, who went to school only through third grade, worked as a maid. King attended Clark College; chemistry was a required course for a home economics major, and King was immediately smitten with it. She resolved to become a research chemist, an ambition encouraged by Alfred Spriggs, head of the department, in whose lab she worked on gas chromatography. King won a Woodrow Wilson Fellowship was admitted to the University of Chicago, where she obtained her PhD in thermochemistry. Her first job was as research chemist at the National Bureau of Standards in Washington, DC, where she remained for five years. While there she worked on a project for the Advanced Research Projects Agency and published several papers. When her husband accepted a position at Nassau Community College in Garden City, Long Island, New York, King took an assistant professorship at York College of the City University of New York, progressing to associate dean of the college. From there she was chosen president of Metropolitan State University in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, and then she moved on to General Mills, Inc. , as a vice president, and as president of the General Mills Foundation, a philanthropic organization.

The information listed below is current as of the date the transcript was finalized.

			

Interview Details

Interview no.: Oral History 0663
No. of pages: 37
Minutes: 140

Interview Sessions

Jeannette E. Brown
1 May 2005
Minneapolis, Minnesota

Abstract of Interview

Reatha Clark King was born in Pavo, Georgia, the second of three daughters. Her father was a sharecropper who never learned to read or write, and her mother, who went to school only through third grade, worked as a maid. There King began elementary school in the Colored church, Mt. Zion Baptist, in which one teacher taught all seven grades in one room. Her parents divorced when King was young; before the divorce, King was sent to live with her widowed maternal grandmother who lived alone. During that time, King attended elementary school in nearby Coolidge, Georgia. Later she re-joined her mother and sisters. Then her mother moved the family to Moultrie, Georgia, where King attended high school. She says she and her sisters always did well in school, and her teachers and family were always proud and supportive of her scholarship. When she was in high school King discovered science. King had always thought she would attend Hampton University, which she had learned about in Black History Week programs. But Clark College sent a recruiter to her high school who offered her a full tuition scholarship to enroll at Clark. Chemistry was a required course for a home economics major, and King was immediately smitten with it. She resolved to become a research chemist, an ambition encouraged by Alfred Spriggs, head of the department, in whose lab she worked on gas chromatography. He and several other professors at Clark and at Morehouse College influenced King to apply for a Woodrow Wilson Fellowship and to seek admission to the best universities in the country. She won the fellowship and was admitted to the University of Chicago, where she obtained her PhD in thermochemistry. At Chicago, O. J. Kleppa was her mentor, and his wife became her friend. During these years she also met and married another chemist, N. Judge King. Reatha King's first job was as research chemist at the National Bureau of Standards in Washington, DC, where she remained for five years. While there she worked on a project for ARPA, the Advanced Research Projects Agency, and published several papers. She also bore two children. When her husband accepted a position at Nassau Community College in Garden City, Long Island, New York, King took an assistant professorship at York College of the City University of New York, progressing to associate dean of the college. From there she was chosen president of Metropolitan State University in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, and the family moved to its most permanent location; King's husband became a research chemist at Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M). After eleven years as president of Metropolitan, King joined General Mills, Inc., as a vice president, and as president of the General Mills Foundation, a philanthropic organization, where she served for fourteen years as president, and one additional year as chair of the Foundation's Board of Trustees. King has received numerous awards, including fourteen honorary degrees; and she has served on the boards of directors of many nonprofit organizations as well as of for-profit companies. During the interview King talks about having worked hard, both in school and during summer employment as a maid; the various transitions in her life: from rural to urban; from South to North; from research lab to academia to business and then to philanthropy. She discusses the challenges posed to women and African Americans, especially in her young years; the difficulties of balancing home life with work; two-career families; her church; and the importance of attitude and communication.

Education

Year Institution Degree Discipline
1958 Clark College BS
1960 University of Chicago MA
1963 University of Chicago PhD Thermochemistry

Professional Experience

National Bureau of Standards

1963 to 1968
Research Chemist

York College, City University of New York

1968 to 1977
Chemistry Faculty
1970 to 1974
Associate Dean for the Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics
1974 to 1977
Associate Dean for Academic Affairs

Metropolitan State University

1977 to 1988
President

General Mills, Inc

1988 to 2002
Vice President
1988 to 2002
President and Executive Director, General Mills Foundation
2002 to 2003
Chairperson of the Board of Directors

University of Minnesota

2004
Louis W. Hill, Jr. Fellow in Philanthropy, Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs

Honors

Year(s) Award
1958 to 1960

Woodrow Wilson Fellow

1960 to 1961

National Medical Fellow

1968

Meritorious Publication Award, National Bureau of Standards

1976

Builder of Brotherhood Award, National Conference of Christians and Jews, Queens-Long Island Chapter

1976 to 1977

Rockefeller Foundation Fellowship for Higher Administration

1979

Leader Award in Education, Minneapolis YWCA

1979

Merit Award for Consumer Rights and Advocacy in Education, Minneapolis-St. Paul Alumnae Chapter, Delta Sigma Theta Sorority

1982

Honorary Degree, Carleton College

1983

Distinguished Alumnus Award, Clark College

1983

Paul Harris Fellow Award, St. Paul Rotary Club

1984

Communication and Leadership Award, Toastmaster's International District VI, Twin Cities

1984

Exceptional Black Scientist Award, CIBA-GEIGY Corporation

1984

Leader Award in Education, St. Paul YWCA

1985

Honorary Degree, SUNY Empire State College

1985

Minds in Motion Award, Science Skills Center Inc. , Brooklyn, New York

1985

Spurgeon Leadership Award for Community Service, Indianhead Council of Boy Scouts of America

1986

Drum Major for Justice Award, Southern Christian Leadership Conference

1986

Educational Excellence Award, National Association of Black Women in Higher Education

1987

Reatha Clark King Scholarship Fund, 10th Anniversary Recognition of Presidency, Metropolitan State University

1988

Honorary Degree, Alverno College

1988

Honorary Degree, Rhode Island College

1988

Honorary Degree, Seattle University

1988

Minnesota Public Administrator of the Year Award

1988

Professional Achievement Award, University of Chicago Alumni Association

1988

Twin Citian of the Year Award

1989

Honorary Degree, Clark-Atlanta University

1989

Honorary Degree, Marymount Manhattan College

1990

Honorary Degree, William Mitchell College of Law

1993

Honorary Degree, Monmouth College

1993

Honorary Degree, Nazareth College

1993

Honorary Degree, Smith College

1993

Sisterhood Award for Distinguished Humanitarian Service, National Conference of Christians and Jews, MN Dakota Region

1994

Minneapolis NAACP Community Service Award in Education

1995

Honorary Degree, South Carolina State University

1995

Woman of Distinction Award, St. Croix Valley Girl Scouts, St. Paul, Minnesota

1996

Inducted into Hall of Fame, International Adult & Continuing Education

1996

Director's Choice Award for Leadership as Outstanding Corporate Director, National Women's Economic Alliance Foundation

1997

Community Builder Award, Boy Scouts of America, Indianhead Council

1998

Honorary Degree, Metropolitan State University

1999

100 Most Influential Minnesotans of the Century, Minneapolis Star Tribune

2001

Honorary Degree, Bennett College

2002

2001 Odyssey Award, Big Brothers and Big Sisters, Minneapolis Chapter

2001

National Black College Hall of Fame Award

2002

Phyllis Wheatley Community Center Community Services Award

2002

Community Leadership Award, Hennepin County Office of the County Attorney

2003

Humanitarian Award, Minneapolis Community and Technical College

2003

Special Distinction Award, General Mills Sales Division

2003

Pioneer Award, Women Venture Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota

2003

Community Service Award, The Cookie Cart Learning Center

2004

Louis J. Hill, Jr. Fellowship in Philanthropy, Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota

2004

Corporate Director of the Year Award, National Association of Corporate Directors

2005

Inducted in Midwest Junior Achievement Business Hall of Fame

2005

Co-Recipient of the 2005 Lifetime Achievement in Philanthropy Award by the National Center for Black Philanthropy, Inc.

2008

Meritorious Service Award, Association of Occupational Therapy Foundation Board

2010

Winds of Change Award, Multicultural Forum, University of St. Thomas, Minneapolis, Minnesota

Table of Contents

Early and College Years
1

Born in Pavo, Georgia. Parents' work. Move to Moultrie, Georgia. Early schooling. Encouragement from parents and teachers. Discovers science in high school. Clark College in Atlanta, Georgia, sends recruiter, who offers King scholarship. She matriculates, expecting to major in home economics. First chemistry class persuades her to become research chemist. Alfred Spriggs as mentor. Gas chromatography in Spriggs' lab. Influence of Spriggs and other chemistry professors on decision about graduate school.

Graduate School
8

Applies for and receives Woodrow Wilson Fellowship. Chooses University of Chicago over University of Minnesota. Dr. Clement. Studying hard. Summer employment as maid in upstate New York. Rules of the time for women more inhibiting than racial discrimination. O. J. Kleppa her dissertation advisor. Meets fellow chemist, eventually marries him. Obtains PhD in thermochemistry.

Life in Washington, D. C.
19

Accepts position as research chemist at National Bureau of Standards. Husband's studies at Howard University. Works on project for Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense. Publishes some papers. Gives birth to two sons. Discussion of gender barriers. Many transitions.

Move to New York
24

Husband begins teaching at Nassau Community College in Garden City, Long Island, New York. King becomes assistant professor at York College, part of the City University of New York system. Moves up to become associate dean.

Role Reversal
26

Becomes president of Metropolitan State University in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Husband becomes research chemist at Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company. Benjamin Mays, former mentor and man who performed marriage of the two Kings, remains friend. Importance of her church. Spends ten years at Metro. Becomes vice president at General Mills, Inc. ; and president of General Mills Foundation. Discusses her role and goals there. Importance of communication. Attitude. Applying scientific approach in all her jobs. Balancing family life with work. Her children today.

Index
35

About the Interviewer

Jeannette E. Brown

Jeannette E. Brown has a research MS degree from the University of Minnesota and a BS degree in the Field of Chemistry from Hunter College. She started her industrial career at CIBA Pharmaceutical Co. as a junior chemist, working there for eleven years, and she held the position of Research Chemist at Merck & Co. Inc. for 25 years. Brown is a former Faculty Associate in the department of Pre-College Programs at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, holding the title of New Jersey Statewide Systemic Initiative (NJSSI) Regional Director. She was appointed to the National Science Foundation Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women Minorities and Persons with Disabilities (CEOSE) and served on that committee for six years. She is the 2005 recipient of the American Chemical Society Dreyfus Award for mentoring minorities in science and she is currently working on a book about the history of African-American women chemists.