Rudolph A. Marcus discusses his early life and education, including his time at McGill University, where he received a Ph.D. in chemistry and worked on World War II-related research with Carl Winkler, and at University of North Carolina, where in his postdoctoral research he began to focus on theory, specifically RRKM theory. Marcus also discusses his time as a professor at Brooklyn Polytechnic University, including his colleagues and his interest in electrostatics and polyelectrolytes, and his later position at University of Illinois. Marcus concludes his interview by speaking about his most current academic position at California Institute of Technology and his thoughts on his electron transfer work.
Marvin Margoshes grew up in New York City, New York. He was always interested in science, settling on chemistry when he was at Brooklyn Technical High School. After high school Margoshes worked in a chemistry lab at New York University Medical School until he enlisted in the US Army. He was sent to the Pacific theater, where he fought in the Battle of Leyte and the Battle of Okinawa. After the war, Margoshes enrolled at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, then did his graduate work at Iowa State University, where his advisor, Velmer Fassel, assigned him to run an infrared spectroscopy lab with George Hammond. Margoshes then moved on to Harvard University, where he was a research fellow, had an unpaid job in flame spectroscopy at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and worked with Bert Vallee on a study of cadmium as a cause of hypertension. Margoshes began work in the analytical chemistry spectrometry group of Bourdon Scribner at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). There he worked with cyanogen and spent a year studying Russian, as most of the work published about cyanogen was in that language. Margoshes began computer work using the time sharing computer; he invented a coenzymometer (DetermiTubes), and had an idea for a glucose analyzer but could not sell the idea to Technicon. After nearly twenty years at NBS, Margoshes went to work at Block Engineering, doing Fourier transform analysis with Tomas Hirschfeld. After just two years he moved to Technicon. Technicon was sold several times; when Bayer AG acquired it Margoshes quit because Bayer refused to do business in Israel. At the end of the interview, Margoshes moves on to a discussion of the evolution of electronics, the development of small instruments, and the size and power of computers. Throughout the interview Margoshes stresses the importance of broad general knowledge. His advice to young people is not to specialize too much, as everything changes, often rapidly.
Herman Mark begins his three-part interview by discussing his research at the Universities of Vienna and Berlin, as well as at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, where Mark collaborated with various colleagues and used x-ray diffraction to establish the crystal structures of small organic molecules and metals. Mark also discusses his time at I. G. Farben, where he established a polymer laboratory and, due to the worsening political climate, left for Vienna to set up the first comprehensive polymer research and training institute. Mark recalls setting up the Polymer Research Institute at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute and his role in the formation of the literature of polymer science and technology.
Russell E. Marker discusses his early life, including his childhood in a farming community, as well as his education, including his time at the University of Maryland. Marker recalls his positions at the Naval Powder Factory and the Ethyl Gasoline Corporation, where he devised the octane rating system. Marker also talks about his interest in synthesizing human hormones from plants and his travels to Mexico to examine indigenous plant life.
Rory M. Marks was born in Sydney, Australia. He was always interested in how things work, and once took apart the garbage disposal to better understand it. Marks attended the University of New South Wales, then entered medical school. After his third year he did an optional year of research, working with T-cell immunity to salmonella in rats; after three or four years in the same lab he chose vascular biology for his field. After an internship in Australia, Marks decided science was best in the United States, and went to the University of Michigan, working in Peter Ward's lab on oxygen-deprived free radicals in vascular tissue damage. He is still at the University of Michigan, where he continues to study tropical diseases and their vascular implications.
John C. Martin begins the interview by describing Gilead when he first joined in 1990. Martin recalls his first meeting with Gordon E. Moore, who joined the board around the same period as Martin. Martin then reflectes on serving on the Gilead board with Donald Rumsfeld and Moore, and also explains how Moore's experiences at Intel helped shaped polices of the compensation committee and audit committee on which he served. Lastly Martin speaks about Gilead's no-profit tiered pricing policy and the impact it has on developing countries, as well as final thoughts on Moore.
Carl Marvel discusses his early life, including his youth on a farm, and his education, including his undergraduate years at Illinois Wesleyan College and his graduate studies at University of Illinois. Marvel recalls his consulting work for DuPont and his World War II work, including his direction of the federal rubber program and anti-malarial and chemical warfare agents research. Marvel concludes by speaking about his most recent research in polymers, his family, hobbies, and involvement with the American Chemical Society.
Thomas Mastin begins this interview by discussing his childhood in Indiana and the untimely death of his father. He then explains the origins of his interest in chemistry, his early career at Lubrizol, and his transition from research into management. Mastin shares his opinions on management philosophy and the place of research in the chemical industry. Finally, Mastin reflects on the changes in the industry, his receipt of the Society of Chemistry Award, and his continued interest in photography and nature study.
William W. Mattox was born in South Bend, Indiana and attended Michigan State University, where he worked in Drosophila and RNA processing labs; his ideas of science and of himself evolved from being around others in science, reading, and coursework. At the California Institute of Technology, he worked in Norman Davidson's lab on heldup-A gene. He became interested in sex determination when heard a talk by Bruce Baker, who explained that temperature differences sometimes determine sex in a number of animals. As a result, he took a postdoc in Baker's lab at Stanford University. Now at MD Anderson Cancer Center, he teaches experimental genetics, sits on student committees, and attempts to keep up with the explosion of scientific knowledge now so much more easily available.
Mayo traces his professional career as a research chemist with Du Pont, as an instructor at the University of Chicago where his primary role was the supervision of Morris Kharasch's research group, as a group leader at U. S. Rubber during and after World War II, as a research associate at General Electric, and finally as a fellow at SRI International. He also comments on the rise of free radical chemistry and the value of applying basic research to practical problems.
McAfee discusses his career in chemical engineering, having studied at the University of Texas and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and having worked as a research and operating engineer for Universal Oil Products Company before accepting a position as technical specialist with Gulf Oil Corporation in Port Arthur. He served as Chairman of the Board and CEO of Gulf for six years before retiring in 1981. His career with Gulf took him to Pennsylvania, London, and Toronto.
A. Kimberley McAllister attended Davidson College in North Carolina and planned to become a physician. During the summers she did research into the hippocampus in Julio Ramirez’s lab. After one year in medical school, McAllister spent a year as a technician in Anthony-Samuel LaMantia’s lab, working on cortical. Lawrence Katz became her PhD advisor, and in his lab she learned that experiences cause physiological changes to the brain; this discovery drew her into the study of plasticity. McAllister took a postdoc in Charles Stevens’s lab at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, intending to learn electrophysiology and quantitative neuroscience, and from Jane Sullivan received help learning programming and learning to use a slice rig. The job search led to University of California, Davis. McAllister’s three current areas of work include synapse formation, using fluorophores as tags, the role of immune molecules in synapse formation, and the role of immune molecules in neurological development, specifically dealing with autism.
McBrayer discusses his studies in chemical engineering at Vanderbilt University and his career at Exxon, eventually becoming president of the corporation. During his years at Exxon Chemical, McBrayer was heavily involved in environmental issues; he helped to set up Clean Sites, Inc. and has been active in the Chemical Manufacturers Association Responsible Care program. In 1992, the same year that he was awarded the Chemical Industry Medal, McBrayer retired from Exxon Chemical.
James A. McCloskey, Jr. , grew up in San Antonio, Texas. He entered Trinity University in San Antonio, where he majored in chemistry; he earned a PhD in analytical chemistry from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. After fulfilling his ROTC commitment by working for the US Army Chemical Corps, McCloskey returned to Klaus Biemann's lab at MIT, where he began his lifelong interest in and study of nucleosides/nucleotides, necessitating different types of mass spectrometers. He turned down the Karolinska Institutet for a job at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas. He began a twenty-year collaboration with Susumu Nishimura in Tokyo, Japan, and made his first of many trips there. His lab discovered the nucleoside Q. He began his part of the search for the roots of the tree of life, which consists of bacteria, eukaryotes, and archaea. McCloskey spent six months of a sabbatical at the National Cancer Research Institute in Tokyo before going to the University of Utah as a visiting professor. He decided to accept a full professorship there. McCloskey became secretary, vice president, then president of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry (ASMS).
Susan McConnell grew up in Crown Point, Indiana. She was a biology major at Harvard University, specializing in animal behavior; she found summer work at the Wisconsin Primate Center. After graduation she worked for Howard Gardner at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. Then, a year later, McConnell entered Simon LeVay’s lab at Harvard, working on the visual system in mammals and moving with the lab to the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. For postdoctoral work, McConnell went to Carla Shatz’s lab at Stanford University, funded by the National Eye Institute. McConnell accepted a Clare Booth Luce professorship at Stanford.
Susan McConnell attended Harvard University, majoring in biology and specializing in animal behavior. She found summer work at the Wisconsin Primate Center, but still questioned the mechanisms of behavior and began thinking in terms of cells. After graduation she worked for Howard Gardner at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. Interested more than ever in cells, especially the neuron, and found that work critical for formulating her continued studies. McConnell entered Simon LeVay’s lab at Harvard, working in the visual system in mammals and moving with the lab to the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. For postdoctoral work, McConnell went to Carla Shatz’s lab at Stanford University, funded by the National Eye Institute. McConnell accepted a professorship at Stanford, which she loves.
Sharon McCormick grew up Northeast Philadelphia. Moving when her children were adolescent, she chose Ambler for its walkability, quaintness, and neighborhood feel. At that time she did not know about the asbestos dumps there. She increased her involvement when the Borough Council wanted to permit a high-rise on the BoRit Asbestos Area. She immersed herself in research about asbestos and the previous EPA remediation in Ambler. She encountered the frustration of dealing with a bureaucracy, but helped fund Citizens for a Better Ambler and the BoRit community advisory group. Other residents became educated and were also galvanized to demand more comprehensive containment and monitoring of the waste. McCormick was elected to the Borough of Ambler Council, informing people of health risks. She has been championing full removal of the asbestos factory and new technology to accomplish the task. McCormick's has taken pictures of the waste still extant and has compiled statistics of the area's deaths and illnesses due to asbestos. She fights repeatedly against the appellation acceptable risk," which she insists does not mean safe. Nevertheless, McCormick loves living in Ambler. "
Timothy J. McDonnell was always fascinated with the natural world. He left high school early without graduating and attended the United States International University, where he studied biology, transferring to University of California, San Diego. McDonnell attended graduate school at the University of North Dakota for his Ph.D. and M.D. , where he taught anatomy and worked in the John O. Oberpriller laboratory; his research on cardiac muscle demonstrated that differentiated cells are not necessarily postmitotic. Wanting to combine research with practice, he accepted a postdoc in the Stanley Korsmeyer lab, searching for cancer-causing genes in mice. Next, McDonnell accepted an appointment at the University of Texas. McDonnell discusses learning molecular biology techniques, programmed cell death, growth rate of cancer cells, and mice as models of human disease.
Anne McDonough grew up in State College, Pennsylvania. At Pennsylvania State University she majored in biology and environment and in education. She now teaches science at Wissahickon High School. Her husband is also in the sciences. To be close to their jobs they settled in Ambler. Though they knew about the area’s asbestos-containing waste, they decided that the EPA’s remediation had the risk under control. McDonough says that as a scientist she is more concerned about the unknown substances in our everyday lives than about the remediated asbestos. In the case of the proposed high-rise, though, she thought that digging would send the asbestos airborne, at which point it would become dangerous. She was chosen for the REACH teaching project; it is a three-year science course for high-school students that she hopes will teach students when and how to become active in their communities, as well as basic science concepts. McDonough talks a little about the improved economic situation and the increase in college-bound high-school students in Ambler. She credits the citizens of the various affected boroughs and townships with identifying the asbestos danger and with successfully petitioning for inclusion on the EPA’s National Priorities List. She emphasizes the importance of communication between EPA and community.
Keith McKennon discusses his youth and interests in research and chemistry, as well as his subsequent years at Oregon State University. McKennon reflects on his multiple career paths at Dow Chemical Company and Shell Chemical Company, from working in a sales position to research management and then as a Director of government relations and public issues. McKennon describes his next major career turn-dealing with public concern about dioxin in Agent Orange, and later, at Dow Corning, with the silicon implant affair.
Michael McKeown grew up in a small town near San Francisco, California. McKeown attended Stanford University, where he began in math but switched to biology. He liked the small classes and the opportunity for close interaction with the faculty. He worked in a lab during summers, studying bacteria and publishing one paper on thymidine.McKeown decided to use his Helen Hay Whitney Foundation Fellowship at University of California, San Diego. He began working in Dictyostelium in Richard Firtel’s lab, but switched to Drosophila. For his postdoc, McKeown stayed at UCSD and worked in Bruce Baker’s lab. McKeown accepted an offer at The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, continuing his work on Drosophila.
McLafferty discusses his upbringing as he continued his education in chemistry in an accelerated degree program at the University of Nebraska during World War II. Having enlisted in the war and after months of combat, McLafferty returned to Nebraska to earn his Master's degree and later his doctoral degree at Cornell University. Shifting his interests to organic chemistry, he entered industry at the Dow Chemical Company where he was introduced to mass spectrometry, a field that figures prominently in much of McLafferty's collaborations and scientific work. Eventually, he moved into academia, teaching and researching at Purdue University and then Cornell University.
McMillan discusses his upbringing in Montebello, California, having expressed an early interest in science, eventually attaining a B.A. in chemistry at UCLA, a M.S. at Columbia, and later on a Ph.D. in chemical physics. McMillan was employed in the Special Alloys and Materials Project, a forerunner to the Manhattan Project, but later joined the faculty of UCLA while working for the RAND Corporation as a consultant to the U. S. military. Also having worked with the Armed Forces in Vietnam, McMillan contracted hepatitis and developed blood chemistry analysis. Some of his personal research projects have included: global warming and ozone depletion issues; atmospheric studies of Venus; and Neutrinos work.
Harold McNair grew up in Miami, Arizona, one of two sons. His parents worked in the local copper mines; they were not highly educated, but they valued education and encouraged Harold. He did well in school but also loved sports, playing tennis especially well. He attended the University of Arizona where he majored in chemistry and minored in physics. McNair entered Purdue University's PhD program and worked in industry during the summers. Fascinated by instrumentation, he met A. J. P. Martin at Amoco and cemented his interest in gas chromatography (GC). At a GC meeting J. J. Van Deemter encouraged him to build Purdue's first gas chromatograph. McNair's next stop was Eindhoven, the Netherlands, for a Fulbright Scholarship, working with A. I. M. Keulemans. He returned to the United States to a job at Esso, studying rocket fuels for the US Department of Defense. In addition to his regular duties McNair wrote Basic Gas Chromatography. After a year he left Esso for F&M Scientific, and they moved back to Amsterdam. After three years McNair went to Varian, Inc. , to be director of European operations. McNair was recruited by two of his former Purdue professors to take a professorship at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech). With some of his students McNair established COLACRO (Congress in Latin America about Chromatography), which has taught short courses and introduced GC into almost all of the countries in Latin America.
Robert L. McNeil, Jr. discusses the evolution of his family's drugstore, the Firm of Robert McNeil and later McNeil Laboratories, after earning his B.S. in physiological chemistry and bacteriology at Yale University. Returning to Philadelphia, McNeil enrolled in the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Temple University's Graduate Pharmacy School, thus beginning his career in the family business and eventually becoming head of a successful pharmaceutical company. As a prominent figure in the pharmaceutical field, McNeil introduced top-selling pharmaceuticals in the nation, like Butisol¬Æ and eventually Tylenol¬Æ, and became president of the Philadelphia Drug Exchange and the Philadelphia branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association.
Carver A. Mead discusses his early interest in electronics, his studies in electrical engineering at the California Institute of Technology, and his long history of entrepreneurial activity that continues to the present day. Mead conducted transistor research and pioneered automated design methodologies for VLSI devices.
Linda C. Meade-Tollin was born and raised in London, West Virginia, one of two children. Her father was a dentist and a community activist, her mother a teacher of languages and a guidance counselor. Always enthusiastically encouraged by parents and teachers, Meade-Tollin did well in school, skipping two grades. When she was in ninth grade her high school was integrated, and the three top graduates in her year were black women. Although there were no science classes in her schools until high school, Meade-Tollin was always interested in science, and when she entered West Virginia State College she decided to major in chemistry. She worked at Harlem and Bellevue Hospitals before entering a chemistry PhD program at the City University of New York (CUNY) at the age of twenty one; a year later she transferred to a program in biochemistry. During her graduate career, Meade-Tollin spent time teaching and she traveled among the various CUNY campuses to do research with Burton Tropp-her doctoral thesis dealt with gene expression in E. coli . Meade-Tollin's first faculty appointment was at the College at Old Westbury, and, for part of her time there, she was also a visiting assistant professor at Rockefeller University, working on sickle cell anemia in Anthony Cerami's lab. She applied for and received a National Institutes of Health postdoctoral award at the University of Arizona; at the end of her award at Arizona, Meade-Tollin married and she also decided to stay at the University. She was the only African-American woman to head a biomedical research laboratory at the University for many years; her areas of research focused on DNA damage, angiogenesis, and cancer invasion and metastasis. During this time she developed a reproducible and physiologically relevant bioassay for angiogenic inhibitors and enhancers suitable for drug discovery screening, and she spent a year as Faculty Development Fellow at Morehouse School of Medicine.
A. J. Meadows discusses his reasons for studying both astronomy and the history of science, and how that led to his appointment in both departments at the University of Leicester. Meadows also comments on his initial interest in information science, later establishing two centers for communication studies, and becoming associated with the Institute for Information Scientists [IIS], the Library Association [LA], and Aslib. He then discusses online communication's impact on information science with the example of BioMedNet and the e-print system, his relationship with Donald J. Urquhart, and the definition of the words information," "documentation," and "library. " "
Markus D. Meister was born in Siegsdorf, Germany. When he was seven, the family moved to Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York. Markus remembers visiting his father at work and walking through a particle accelerator tunnel. He attended the University of Munich, but not feeling challenged, chose to attend the California Institute of Technology for his PhD, and was recruited into Edward Stone's cosmic-ray lab. During this time, Meister attended a colloquium given by Howard C. Berg about flagellar motion, a talk that pushed Markus in the direction of biology. He spent a summer in Berg's lab and was given permission to write his PhD thesis for Berg. As a postdoc in Dennis Baylor's lab at Stanford, Meister developed an interest in neuroscience and human visual perception. He accepted an assistant professorship at Harvard Medical School, where he now has tenure.
After earning his BS in chemical engineering at Case Western Reserve University, Arthur I. Mendolia began to work at DuPont as a research engineer but later rose in managerial positions such as Vice President of Explosives. DuPont recommended Mendolia for a position in the U. S. Department of Defense [DOD], where he learned more about management, organization, finances, and worked personally with President Gerald Ford. Mendolia later became involved in corporate ventures, becoming president of Halcon International and chairman of Oxirane, and later establishing his own chemical company, CasChem which would later be known as Cambrex Corporation.
Delbert Meyer discusses his upbringing in Maynard, Iowa and his initial uncertainty about his future career, leading to his decision to serve for two years in the U. S. Navy. Later, his professors at Wartburg College and the University of Iowa encouraged his interest in chemistry, contributing to his thirty-nine years with Amoco. He started his career as an exploratory researcher then as a research consultant, eventually developing a faster and more economical method for producing purified terephthalic acid (PTA), and later winning the 1995 Perkin Medal.
Matthew L. Meyerson was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the youngest of three children. His family moved several times before finally settling in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, when Matthew was seven. Meyerson's interest in science began early: he loved to collect rocks and minerals and thought he might become a geologist. He decided early to attend Harvard University. He did research on quinones during college in Leslie Dutton's laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania and on enzyme evolution in Steven Benner's laboratory at Harvard. He spent a year in Japan at the University of Kyoto and then began medical school. Meyerson entered the joint health sciences and technology graduate program at Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Meyerson pursued doctoral research on cyclin-dependent kinases involved in cell-cycle regulation in Edward Harlow's laboratory at Harvard. Meyerson accepted a postdoctoral fellowship on cell immortalization in Robert Weinberg's laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), then accepted a position at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and set up his lab to accord with his decision to work on lung cancer genetics. Meyerson discusses his research on cancer genomics, functional biochemistry, and computational subtraction genetic analysis; and broader applications of his work genetically targeting drug treatment for lung cancer.
Seymour Meyerson was born and raised in Chicago, Illinois and attended the University of Chicago from which he received his undergraduate degree. By 1943 Meyerson began active service with the U. S. military, spending the majority of his time with the Signal Corps; he also performed important work as the technical liaison officer between the Manhattan District and Standard Oil Company (Indiana). His time with the military afforded him the opportunity to be trained in electronics and to encounter his first mass spectrometer. In 1946 Meyerson started what would become a nearly forty year career with Standard Oil Company (Indiana) (later the Amoco Corporation). From the outset, Meyerson was involved with the mass spectrometry group, first conducting quantitative gas analysis on gases and low-boiling liquids, consisting of hydrocarbons and fixed gases.
Catherine Hurt Middlecamp attended Cornell University, where women made up about one-fifth of the undergraduate student body. She graduated Phi Beta Kappa with a BA and a major in chemistry. She was selected as a Danforth Fellow for graduate study and chose to enroll at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where she entered Robert West's research lab on organosilicon chemistry. After finishing her Ph.D. , Middlecamp served for a year as a Danforth Teaching Intern at Knox College, then she took a faculty position at Hobart & William Smith Colleges before moving back to the University of Wisconsin, Madison. While there she developed (and still teaches) a general chemistry course for non-science majors, Chemistry in Context . In 2003, Middlecamp was elected chair of the Integrated Liberal Studies (ILS) program, a long-standing interdisciplinary certificate program on campus. The interview concludes with Middlecamp's views on teaching versus research, which she believes is a false dichotomy; what she believes are the many nefarious ways in which women are seen as unserious scholars; the undervaluation and dismissal of women and teaching; and the inherent difficulties of the tenure system.
Earl K. Miller was born near Cleveland, Ohio and attended Kent State University, originally for biology. After taking advice to get research experience, he worked in Richard M. Vardaris's psychology lab. Once he started doing experiments and collecting neurophysiology data, he fell in love" with research; Miller switched his major to psychology so Vardaris could be his advisor. He attended Princeton University for graduate studies, working in the laboratory of Charles G. Gross, studying the visual cortex. Next, Miller undertook postdoctoral work with Robert Desimone at the National Institutes of Health, transitioning from studying vision to studying the cognitive operations that operate on sensory information. He is now at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he has focused his lab on cognitive neuroscience and executive brain control. "
Foil A. Miller was involved early on with Pittcon and its two founding groups, the Spectroscopy Society of Pittsburgh and the Society of Analytical Chemists of Pittsburgh. In his preliminary interview Miller outlines some of the changes in the field of instrumentation that he has observed during the course of his career and reflects on some of the key individuals in instrument entrepreneurship. An interview conducted ten years later focuses on his personal biography. Inspired by a high school science teacher to study chemistry, he attended Hamline University, then went onto graduate school at Johns Hopkins. Miller spent much of his career in academia and research, taking positions at the National Research Council, the University of Minnesota, the Mellon Institute, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Jeffery F. Miller grew up in Toledo, Ohio. As a child, he used his father's microscope to study bacteria and became interested in medicine. He attended Case Western Reserve University, where he studied biology and chemistry. Influenced by almost larger than life" Moselio Schaechter, Miller attended Tufts University School of Medicine. One of his rotations was with Michael Malamy, whom Miller calls the most rigorous scientist he has ever met. After a time at Stanford, Miller accepted an assistant professorship at University of California, Los Angeles, where he has developed Listeria monocytogenes as a bacterial probe and has been experimenting with viral vaccines. He discusses testing the lab's vaccines in humans, his competitors, innovative experimentation, and his study of bacterial pathogens' interaction with the immune system. "
Ronald A. Milligan grew up near Londonderry, Northern Ireland, becoming the first in his family to attend university. He had been interested in biology since childhood, and chose to study botany and bacteriology at the University of Leeds. After graduating, Milligan became a research assistant at the Nuffield Institute of Comparative Medicine at the London Zoo, then at the Medical Research Council, going to work on nuclear pore complex (NPC) in Nigel Unwin's lab. When Unwin was recruited to Stanford, Milligan followed. He spent three months in Germany, studying cryo-electron microscopy; his results allowed him to acquire independence as a researcher. Milligan talks about his NPC research, grantsmanship, and safe science," lab research, personnel, computers, and his work at Scripps Research Institute. "
Russell A. Mittermeier discusses the involvement and increasing support of Gordon E. Moore in Conservation International, especially his contribution to building the Center for Applied Biodiversity Science. He describes Moore as a good match with Conservation International given Moore's appreciation of its scientific approach and organizational management, leading the board of directors and transforming the organization at large. Lastly, Mittermeier reflects on how Moore's experience at Conservation International influenced the founding of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and notes the Moores' influence in attracting Silicon Valley to the cause of conservation.
Jeffery D. Molkentin was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and attended Marquette University, where he discovered an interest in medicine. While in medical school, he realized being a doctor did not appeal to him, but the science of medicine did. He entered the laboratory of Lee Ann Baxter Lowe at the Blood Center of Southeastern Wisconsin, and completed his doctoral degree with Bruce E. Markham at the Medical College of Wisconsin, where his research focused on transcriptional regulation of the alpha-myosin heavy chain gene in heart muscle. Now at the University of Cincinnati, he has pursued research in developmental biology on the molecular genetic events in heart and skeletal muscle growth. He discusses goals for his laboratory and future research on the heart and heart disease.
This oral history with Gordon T. Moore and Jay T. Last focuses on the years 1956 and 1957, during which time Moore and Last worked at Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory and Fairchild Semiconductor was founded. This transcript is about the life of ideas and the people who brought those ideas to fruition; Moore and Last reflect on their experiences during these years while flipping through an old notebook that documented various aspects of the meetings they had over an eighteen month period. In order to fully understand this oral history, the reader must consult the Supplement to Gordon E. Moore and Jay T. Last Oral History, oral history number 0327S, which is also part of the Chemical Heritage Foundation's collection.
Carlos T. Moraes grew up in São Paulo, Brazil. When pursuing his mater's degree, he explored several career options, including a course at the Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquimicas Fundacion Campomar, where he worked under Armando J. Parodi. He eventually enrolled in a doctoral program at Columbia University, where he worked in the Eric A. Schon lab. He accepted a position at University of Miami to study mitochondrial diseases; he also has devised some related projects and possible applications of his DNA mutation studies. He discusses the advantages and disadvantages of being a principal investigator, competition and collaboration in science, thoughts about ethical issues, concerns about overpopulation, differences between American and Brazilian students, and thoughts about the use of animals in scientific research.
In this interview, Herbert Morawetz traces his early life prior to leaving Czechoslovakia on the Nazi invasion and resettling in Canada, where he studied chemical engineering at the University of Toronto. He describes his introduction to industrial research work and his consequent Ph.D. study at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute and late postdoctoral fellowship at Harvard Medical School. Morawetz also reflects on the future of polymer education and on international scientific collaboration.
Paul Morgan discusses his upbringing in Maine, his undergraduate studies at the University of Maine, his graduate research at Ohio State University on naturally-occuring plant pigments, and his post-doctoral work on cellulose derivatives. He describes his Du Pont investigations of the synthesis of polymers, with particular emphasis on interfacial polycondensation. Incorporated into the interview are Morgan's reflections on scientific publication from an industrial setting.
Thomas W. Muir grew up in Stranraer, Scotland. His grandfather fueled Muir's interest in mathematics, but large school classes offered little opportunity for teachers to foster his interests. He studied chemistry at University of Edinburgh, staying to pursue his PhD with Robert Ramage. He then undertook a postdoc with Stephen B. H. Kent at the Scripps Research Institute. Influenced by Mark J. Ginsberg's work on cellular interactions, Muir switched his research from FTV protease to chemical ligation and the integrin system, eventually becoming a senior research associate. He then accepted a position at Rockefeller University. His research focuses on chemical biology and the use of chimeras of synthetic peptides and recombinant proteins for in vitro biochemical pathway studies. Muir discusses teaching, administrative duties, publishing, patents, funding, and collaborations.
William A. Muller was born in Manhattan, and as a child wanted to cure death" by studying medicine. He describes his undergraduate curriculum at Harvard and his experience purifying DNA under lab director Lynn C. Klotz. Feeling that clinical and research work should complement each other, Muller attended Rockefeller University-Cornell University Medical College M.D./Ph.D. program. He talks about his clinical training, his residency, and the practical nature of medical education. He studied endothelial cells in the Michael A. Gimbrone Jr. lab. His experimental methods included testing the validity of the data on slaughterhouse aortas. Although he was anxious at first about returning to his first graduate-school lab, Muller accepted a position at Rockefeller University. He now studies proteins that mediate monocyte binding and transmigration. "
Burnaby Munson entered Tarleton State College in central Texas and transferred to the University of Texas in Austin, Texas; physical chemistry was his favorite subject. He studied the reactions of acetylene while in Robbin Anderson's lab and completed his PhD there as well. Munson's first job was with Humble Oil in Baytown, Texas, where he worked on solution thermodynamics, extracting paraffins from aromatics. Humble was collegial, and training continued with a lecture series organized by Joe Franklin, who was a good friend and mentor to Munson. Franklin's small group of high-profile scientists developed the field of ion chemistry in mass spectrometry (MS). When Franklin left Humble for Rice University, the ion chemistry group began to break up. Frank Field took his high-pressure instrument to New Jersey; Frederick Lampe went to Pennsylvania State University; and Munson took a position at the University of Delaware. Munson was recruited to use Delaware's two instruments, an old time of flight (TOF) and a new CEC 21-110. As a replacement for Joe Franklin and Frank Field, Munson attended his first American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) meeting, which he says was a plum. " He has since attended most of the American Society of Mass Spectrometry (ASMS) meetings, which subsumed ASTM, and he was president of the Society.
James S. Murday was fascinated by solid-state physics and decided to enroll at Cornell University, where he was research assistant for Robert Cotts. Murday's interests expanded to include diffusion. At the time, chemistry's new pulse techniques provided greater impetus for NMR, and Murday exploited the growing interface between chemistry and physics. When he finished his PhD he was recruited by Henry Resing into the NMR lab at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). He joined the American Vacuum Society (AVS), which united chemistry, materials science, and electronics. When scanning and tunneling microscopes came along, clearly nanostructures were next. AVS officially became the first home of nanoscience. Murday influenced the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the National Science Foundation, both of which had funding in abundance, to get involved in nano. Eventually the Nanometer Science and Engineering Technology (NSET), a subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), was born and Murday was named Executive Secretary. Murday was also appointed Director of the National Nanotechnology Coordination Office (NNCO), set up to support NSET.