In 1947 Clifford and Kathryn Hach started the Hach Chemical and Oxygen Company, which eventually became Hach Company, one of the most innovative, influential, and well-known companies in the world. Hach-Darrow relays her thoughts on and her memories of the key events surrounding the start of the company, the creation of the Hach Model 5B Hardness Test Kit, the decision to enter the water testing market, the incorporation of the company in 1951, and the importance and need for instrumentation. Moreover, Hach-Darrow discusses the company's initial public offering in 1968, innovation, the company's international pursuits, Bruce J. Hach's involvement with the company, and the importance of quality control and customer service standards.
After graduating from Johns Hopkins with a PhD in chemistry, Norman Hackerman became a steady participant of the Gordon Research Conferences [GRC]-particularly the Corrosion Conference, which he chaired in 1950. Hackerman recalls that the early conferences were helpful to his scientific research, and that the atmosphere was informal and interactive. He also explains that as the numbers of attendees, disciplines, and locations of the conferences increased, the conference atmosphere became a more formal, lecture-type setting. Hackerman discusses some of the activities of the GRC board of trustees, on which he served as a member from 1970 to 1973.
Norman Hackerman recounts his seven years at Johns Hopkins University, where he received both his bachelor's and PhD degrees and developed interests in philosophy and psychology as well as in physical chemistry. remarks upon the difficulties the university encountered due to the Depression, and its effects upon laboratory equipment and research. He next describes his experiences teaching at Loyola College and consulting for the Colloid Corporation, his job with the Coast Guard at the Federal Lighthouse Service, his years at Virginia Polytechnic Institute, and his work on the Manhattan District Project. The final portion of the interview briefly summarizes his early teaching background at the University of Texas, his consulting work for the Lone Star Gas Company, and his creation of the Corrosion Research Laboratory (now the Balcones Research Center).
Norman Hackerman begins his second interview by describing his work after coming to the University of Texas at Austin Department of Chemistry and starting the Corrosion Research Laboratory [currently the J. J. Pickle Research Center]. He discusses the physical chemistry textbook for premed students he wrote with Frederick Matsen and Jack Myers. He also recalls the events which led to his becoming chairman of the department after only seven years, his reorganization of the department, and characteristics of the department's faculty at that time.
Norman Hackerman's third interview begins by reviewing the origins of his association with The Electrochemical Society [ECS], which was related to his interest in the oxygen electrode as a student. He recalls his first paper, presented at an ECS conference and published in the Transactions of the American Electrochemical Society , and the first colleagues he met at this ECS meeting. He next describes the character of The ECS at that time, comparing it with the American Chemical Society [ACS], as well as the origins of the society's journal and his involvement in publication and editorial activities.
Vladimir Haensel studied engineering at Northwestern, receiving his BS in 1935. He earned a scholarship for graduate school at MIT, where he studied polymerization under Edwin R. Gilliland. After earning his MS in chemical engineering in 1937, Haensel took a permanent position at Universal Oil Products and helped set up a high-pressure laboratory (funded by UOP) at Northwestern. During this time, Haensel also earned his PhD in chemistry from Northwestern, writing a thesis on the decomposition of cyclohexane. In the 1940s and 1950s, Haensel moved into research management. He was also integral in UOP's development of the Platforming process.
Marnie E. Halpern grew up in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. She was always "a bit of a brain," moving ahead in school. Halpern attended McMaster University, but did not enjoy school until her last year, when she became interested in molecular biology and decided to do a master's in James Smiley's lab. Having become fascinated by Drosophila, she invited Gary Struhl to give a talk at McMaster. She pursued her PhD at Yale, where she joined the Spyros Artavanis-Tsakonas lab. Halpern gained recognition in the biology department and joined the Haig Keshishian lab to characterize the neuromuscular system in larval Drosophila. Eventually, Halpern accepted a position at Carnegie Institution of Washington. She talks about her experiences at Carnegie, struggles for women in the sciences, research, publishing, and more.
Bruce A. Hamilton was born in Palo Alto, California and grew up in Santa Clarita. In high school he had two excellent biology teachers and an excellent chemistry and calculus teacher; their influence further encouraged his love of science. Hamilton matriculated at University of California at San Diego, where as a sophomore he discovered an interest in genetics. He did so well in his first genetics class that he was asked to be a teaching assistant the next year. He spent his senior year in Richard Firtel's lab. With the guidance of Richard Firtel and the two teachers of that first genetics class, he ended up at California Institute of Technology for graduate school. There he began working with flies in Elliot Meyerowitz's lab, eventually leaving for Kai Zinn's lab, where he would concentrate more on neural development. He finished his PhD, married, and moved to Boston, where Hamilton took up his postdoc at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research at Massachusetts of Technology; he worked in Eric Lander's lab for five years. From there he moved back to San Diego and accepted a position at the University of California at San Diego.
Peter Handler was born in 1947 in Brooklyn, New York, and spent much of his childhood in New Jersey. Self-described as an atheist-Jew, Peter spent his summers as a teenager at the Shaker Village Work Camp in New Lebanon, New York. Much of his life since has focused either on building or making himself part of communities. Peter studied political science at Bates College in Lewiston, Maine, where he spent winters skiing at Sugarloaf Mountain. On graduation in 1968 Peter applied to his draft board as a conscientious objector. He spent the summer of 1969 living near Acadia National Park and attended Woodstock Music Festival. For several years after he lived in a commune near Ithaca, New York. In the late 1970s Peter earned his MFA in jewelry-making and metalsmithing from the School for American Craftsmen at the Rochester Institute of Technology. Peter moved to Philadelphia in 1982 and became a furniture maker in 1984. He has remained in Philadelphia and still constructs custom studio furniture for people’s homes. Early in 2012 Peter helped found the Philadelphia chapter of Citizens’ Climate Lobby and became its group leader.
Dorit Hanein was born in Tel Aviv, Israel, but grew up in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. After high school and a stint in the Israeli Army, Hanein enrolled in Shenkar Institute of Textile Technology; there she worked with Dr. Shalev on developing a fire-retardant textile. After receiving her degree, she spent a year in the chemical industry, which she found male-dominated and stodgy. Hanein then followed Shalev's suggestion that she pursue a graduate degree at the Weizmann. She was accepted and worked on biomineralization and on the specificity of crystal-cell interactions. Hanein decided to spend her first postdoctoral year in Boston with Tom Rapoport (Harvard Medical School) and Chris Akey (Boston University); Hanein had both Fulbright and Rothschild Fellowships at this time. At the end of this year, she went to Brandeis University, to work with David DeRosier, one of the founders of three-dimensional, high resolution electron microscopy image analysis. During that time she learned and practiced biochemistry with Paul Matsudaira at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research. Following her postrgraduate work, Hanein accepted a position at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute.
William E. Hanford attended the University of Illinois and studied with Roger Adams. He worked on various problems in the laboratory, and got to know many members of the department, including Carl Marvel, Reynold Fuson, and Ralph Shriner. After earning his PhD in 1935, he took a job with DuPont, working in Experimental Station. He discusses how work on such household items as Teflon, Glim, and Head and Shoulders led to his induction into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.
While still at Princeton, Hugh Taylor involved N. Bruce Hannay in the Manhattan Project, and after receiving his PhD in 1944, Hannay took a job with Bell Laboratories, where he continued that work. Once the war ended, Hannay began research on the mechanisms of thermionic emission from oxide cathodes. The invention of the transistor in 1947 led him to focus on silicon, which was deemed more useful in semiconductor research than single crystals of germanium. This work resulted in Hannay's development of a mass spectrograph to analyze solids.
The interview begins with N. Bruce Hannay discussing the origins of his interest in electrochemistry and his awareness of The Electrochemical Society as an ideal organization for discussions and publications on topics related to solid state chemistry. Hannay helped to further the Society's interest in solid state and corrosion work while he had responsibility for electrochemistry at Bell Labs. Throughout the interview, he comments on positive aspects of the Society's internal operations; its relations with other scientific organizations and companies, including the American Chemical Society, GE, and Bell Labs; and the influence of colleagues such as R. M. Burns and Charles Tobias.
Gregory J. Hannon was raised in New Castle, Pennsylvania. He attended Case Western Reserve University. During his sophomore year he worked in Joyce E. Jenhoft's laboratory, which served as a pivotal moment in his scientific career. Upon starting his graduate career at Case Western, he entered Timothy N. Nilsen's lab and began his work on RNA processing, developing new techniques to answer his research questions. While working as a postdoctoral fellow with David Beach at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, he researched cell cycle interacting proteins and RNA interference (RNAi). He next accepted a permanent research position at Cold Spring Harbor. Hannon talks about partnerships between academics and industry professionals, the complexities of starting his own lab, privatization of scientific research, trademark issues, and more.
Yusuf A. Hannun was born in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Hannun attended the International College in Beirut, where he excelled in science and mathematics. He studied medicine at the American University of Beirut, specializing in internal medicine, then took a subspecialty in oncology/hematology at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina. He studied the connection between protein kinase C and diacylglycerol with James E. Neidel and Robert M. Bell, after which he received a National Institutes of Health Physician Scientist Award and began his work on sphingolipids and protein kinase C. Much of the interview is spent discussing the cultural, social, and political life of Lebanon, the civil war, and Hannun's comparison of life in the United States to life in Lebanon.
Upon completing his thesis on externally shunted Josephson Junctions, Paul Hansma accepted a faculty position at the University of California at Santa Barbara and worked on squeezable electron tunneling junctions. It was at that time Hansma heard a lecture by Gerd Binnig on a new technique called scanning tunneling microscopy [STM]. Frustrated by the lengthy time requirements to set up each trial, Hansma began to move away from ultra-high vacuum equipment into STMs that would function in air and liquids. Hansma divided the labor between graduate students, technician Barney Drake, and himself and began building STMs, including the first one to achieve atomic resolution in water. Then, a conference at Cancun, Mexico served as a major impetus for information exchange and helped many groups to achieve atomic resolution. Soon after, at the request of colleague, Calvin Quate, Hansma reviewed a paper on atomic force microscopy [AFM]. The concept intrigued Hansma and he began to shift his research from STM to AFM.
Alex G. Harrison was born in Peterborough, Ontario, Canada. He won a two-year scholarship to the University of Western Ontario and decided to study chemistry, and completed both his bachelor’s and master’s degrees. Harrison went to McMaster University for a PhD, working on thyroid function and thyroxine in Harry Thode’s lab. The sulfur cycle introduced him to mass spectrometry. Harrison’s first academic position was as lecturer at the University of Toronto, where he began research into ion molecule reactions. Harrison became active in the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, serving on the board of directors. He received the Izaak Walton Killam Research Fellowship allowing two years solely to research. Harrison discusses international contributions to the field of mass spectrometry. He believes that having trained many good mass spectrometrists is one of his major contributions. He credits his mentors for giving him encouragement and the freedom to explore. Though the field is radically changed from his early days, he believes that mass spectrometry has much still to provide to science.
After briefly describing his graduate work at the University of Illinois and a summer job at Du Pont, Allan Hay begins the story of his career at General Electric. There, after only a very short time, he was able to oxidize xylenol to synthesize PPO. Hay focuses on the practical applications as well as the chemical aspects of the progress that occurred in plastics research (including the developments of Noryl and Ultem) during his career as both a research chemist and a manager at GE He concludes with a bit of insight into what lies ahead in polymer research and development.
Oliver Hayden served in clinical laboratories and other assignments in the US Army Sanitation Corps during World War I. He joined the Fisk Rubber Company, where he gained experience in rubber compounding and quality control. Hayden then moved to the Organic Chemicals Department of Du Pont, where he worked in screening chemicals for use in the rubber industry, the development of neoprene, and became Manager of the Rubber Laboratory.
Robert Hayes graduated from UCLA in 1947 with a BA in mathematics, and afterwards was drafted into the Navy. He recounts his acceptance into the Navy's V-12 program, and the courses he took for that program at the University of Colorado at Boulder. After the War, Hayes returned to UCLA, where he earned his MA in mathematics in 1949, and his PhD in mathematics in 1952. In 1969, Joseph Becker and Robert Hayes started Becker and Hayes Incorporated, with the purpose of creating an interlibrary network for the State of Washington. Hayes discusses the obstacles he and Becker overcame to accomplish that task, and goes on to recount his work with NCLIS and the SILC system. Hayes concludes the interview with his interpretation of the relationship between information science and library science, and the importance of libraries and librarians.
Thomas S. Hays was born in Winter Haven, Florida and attended the University of North Carolina. After graduation he spent three years as a technician in Bruce Niklas's lab at Duke University, where he became fascinated by mitosis. He was accepted into the PhD program at the University of North Carolina to work in Edward Salmon's lab, where he researched spindle poles and micotubules. He spent summers with Salmon at Woods Hole Marine Biology Laboratory. Soon, he decided to switch to genetics and took a postdoc with Margaret Fuller at the University of Colorado. He then accepted a job at the University of Minnesota. Now tenured, Hays continues to publish, write grants, teach, and ponder the place of science in society.
Xi He was born in Wuhan, China. His father was a professor targeted during the Cultural Revolution. While He's early schooling was "backward", he felt much respect for his teachers. After Mao's death, he attended Huazhong University of Science and Technology. His interest in biology led him to pursue a master's in biomedical engineering, during which time he met Dr. Sidney Sullivan. He attended University of California, San Diego for his PhD, transitioning a different national and academic culture. He worked in Michael G. Rosenfeld's laboratory, researching transcription factors in regulation of brain development. After a postdoc at the National Institute of Health, he became a principal investigator at Harvard University, where he researches Wnt cell signaling pathway in gene expression, regulation, and development.
Rebecca W. Heald grew up in Greenville, Pennsylvania. Her father was a chemistry professor at Thiel College in Greenville, and her mother was a chemistry instructor there as well. Heald attended Hamilton College in Clinton, New York, where she majored in chemistry. The department was too small to provide lab work until her last year, when she did her first research project in Donna Brown's biochemistry lab. For two years she worked as a research associate for Sarah Hitchcock-DeGregori, helping her set up her lab in New Jersey, doing some real analysis, and publishing some papers. During her time in Brown's lab, Heald heard Bernardo Nadal-Ginard give a talk that influenced her to apply to Harvard University for graduate school. There she worked with Frank McKeon. She did her postdoctoral fellowship with Eric Karsenti at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelberg, Germany, where her research focused on spindle formation. She accepted a position at the University of California, Berkeley, and set up her lab. Heald concludes the interview by discussing current and planned research on chromosome architecture and mitotic spindle assembly; practical applications of her work; and the impact of the Pew Scholars Program in the Biomedical Sciences award on her work.
The interview traces Richard Heckert's early education and training, from high school and Miami University to Army work as a chemist at Oak Ridge, where management experience influenced his pursuit of a business career. He discusses safety considerations and atomic bomb work and reflects on dropping the bomb and developing atomic energy. Next the interview turns to Heckert's graduate career at the University of Illinois, his interest in organic chemistry, work and relationship with mentor Harold Snyder, and considerations in selecting a research chemist position at DuPont. The majority of the interview details Heckert's experience and rise through management at DuPont: early work with TCNE and tricyanovinyl compounds for dyeing; and various positions at DuPont's Spruance, Clinton, and Circleville plants and in the Film and Plastics Departments.
Upon receiving his PhD under Alan Portis, Alan Heeger took an assistant professorship at the University of Pennsylvania's physics department. At Penn Heeger's interests included spin-wave theory, metal physics, the Kondo problem, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in magnetic materials. Then in 1973, Heeger began investigating polysulfur nitride along with Alan MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa that led to seminal publications on conducting polymers. After twenty years at the University of Pennsylvania, Heeger moved to the University of California at Santa Barbara's physics department, where he continued to conduct his research and collaboration with other scientists.
L. Louis Hegedus grew up in Szolnok, Hungary. After completing the chemical engineering program of the Technical University of Budapest, he was recruited to work at the Research Institute for the Organic Chemical Industry, where he helped develop a polyester process. After touring Europe, Hegedus secured a job as a chemical engineer at Daimler-Benz in Mannheim, Germany. He was next accepted into the chemical engineering PhD program at University of California, Berkeley. He published seven papers from his dissertation and wrote the first book on catalyst poisoning. Hegedus next worked on the catalytic converter for General Motors, then accepted a job as a director of central research at W. R. Grace and Company. He was then recruited to be research vice president for North America at Elf Atochem. Hegedus has retired and founded his own consulting firm, and been a Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the Research Triangle Institute.
Nathaniel Heintz developed an early interest in science due to his intellectually stimulating home environment. Heintz chose Williams College in order to play hockey and worked hard only in his science classes, especially genetics and biochemistry. He did his honors thesis in electron microscopy with George Vankin. Heintz entered State University of New York at Albany to study molecular biology under David Shub. At Washington University in St. Louis, Heintz combined genetics with gene expression in Robert Roeder’s lab, concentrating on cell-cycle regulation to learn about basic growth control in cells. He accepted a job at Rockefeller University and returned to work in neurobiology. His resumption of neurobiology also gives his lab members infinite amounts of material to take to their own labs. Heintz values the personal aspects of science and likes to be colleagues with his former lab members. He says a good scientist needs to have a strong work ethic, critical design capability, imagination in experimentation, and intellectual aggressiveness. Heintz decries “flash” science, which often leads to premature conclusions and publications that later have to be retracted.
Madeline Henderson worked with James Perry and Allen Kent compiling and researching possibilities for a standard chemical notation system for IUPAC selection. Her search for terms for semantic factoring took her throughout the country, where she met many others involved with scientific information, including Eugene Garfield, Claire Schultz, and Saul Herner. She, Perry, and Kent initiated the use of telegraphic abstracts. After working with the National Science Foundation (NSF) as a research analyst, Henderson joined the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) in 1972. She received the Watson-Davis award in 1989 for her service to the American Society for Information Science (ASIS). Henderson concludes the interview with reflections on her fellowship with the American Association for the Advancement of Science and thoughts on pioneers in the field of information science.
David Hercules describes his youth in Somerset, Pennsylvania, and his childhood curiosity with science. Hercules began his professional career at Lehigh University as an assistant professor. He describes how he built a spectroflurometer at Lehigh and did research on photo-induced luminescence. Hercules used ESCA and XPS [x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy] to investigate a variety of phenomena, including heterogeneous catalysis. He also consulted for the Central Intelligence Agency, Instrumentation Laboratories, W. S. Merrill and Company, and Exxon Mobil Corporation. Hercules moved to the University of Georgia after six years at MIT. He then describes the position of analytical chemistry within the chemistry department and the variety of instrumentation that he was able to work with in Georgia. After receiving a Guggenheim Foundation fellowship, he was able to study at Northwestern University with Robert L. Burwell Jr. To continue his work on catalysis, Hercules moved to the University of Pittsburgh [Pitt] after seven years in Georgia. He got to work with an impressive variety of instrumentation at Pitt, and consulted for W. S. Merrill and Exxon.
In 1948, Herner took a job at the engineering and science library at New York University, where he was first introduced to special libraries and the SLA. Two years later, Herner moved to the Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University, and he began developing an interest in user studies. He discusses his involvement in a number of organizations, including the ACS, and his colleagues in information science. In 1953, Herner joined the Atlantic Research Corporation. While there, he began to form his own company, now known as Herner and Company.
Gerhard Herzberg, over the course of his education, studied with Hans Rau, James Franck and Max Born in the fields of physics and spectroscopy. Herzberg held academic positions at Darmstadt Technische Universität, University of Saskatchewan, University of Chicago, and the National Research Council of Canada and won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1971.
Ann B. Hill was raised in Sydney, Australia. She studied medicine at the University of New South Wales and interned at Sydney Hospital with a specialization in internal medicine. She continued to train in clinical immunology at St. Vincent's Hospital in Sydney, where she also set up an immunology clinic for AIDS patients. Wanting to combine clinical medicine and scientific research, Hill returned to the Australian National University for her doctoral degree, working in Arno Mullbacher's laboratory on immunodominance and cytotoxic T-cell response to flaviviruses. After winning the Oxford Nuffield Dominions Medical Fellowship she attended Oxford University, researching HLA-B51, cross-presentation, and immuno-evasion. A postdoc at Massachusetts Institute of Technology proved quite influential scientifically and Hill continues work on immune-evasion at Oregon Health Sciences University.
Michael W. Hill received a BS and MSc in chemistry and became head of Morgan Crucible Group's physics laboratory, but was drawn to the information and documentation side of the field. Hill first became assistant keeper in the National Reference Library of Science and Invention, and later moved on to the British Museum and the British Library.
Franz Hillenkamp was born in Essen, Germany. Having chosen the science and math track in the Gymnasium Hillenkamp went on to major in electrical engineering at Technische Universität München (TUM). He interrupted his diploma thesis on vacuum systems to accept a Fulbright Scholarship to Purdue University, where he obtained a master's degree. Returning to TUM he finished his thesis and married. Hillenkamp's first job was with the Federal Department of Science and Technology, where he taught himself lasers and worked with them for fourteen years. During this time he also got his PhD, writing his thesis on energy meters for Q-switch lasers. Hillenkamp met Raimund Kaufmann and the two began a long-lasting collaboration; eventually this collaboration led Hillenkamp and Michael Karas to the invention of, first, laser-induced microprobe mass analysis, or LAMMA; and then matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, or MALDI, which has been profoundly important in biology. Researching the safety of lasers led Hillenkamp to found a laser-tissue interaction laboratory; this lab became the prototype for the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital. Hillenkamp held a position at J. W. Goethe Universität in Frankfurt before moving to the University of Münster, where he became chair and Director of the Department of Medical Physics and Biophysics. At that time Münster was considered the center of mass spectrometry in Germany. Hillenkamp has also held visiting positions at Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Università degli Studi di Napoli, University of Maryland in Munich, and other places. He helped develop a submission for the Excellence Initiative before he retired.
Tatsuya Hirano was born in Chiba, Japan. He entered Kyoto University intending to study physics, but became interested in molecular biology. He was unaffected by his professors, finding undergraduate education self-directed, not instructor-led. As is common in Japan, Hirano remained at Kyoto for graduate school, working in Mitsuhiro Yanagida's laboratory on the genetics of chromosome structure in fission yeast. Knowing options were limited at home, Hirano went abroad for his postdoc. He chose to study with Timothy J. Mitchison-someone Hirano considered one of the brightest cell biologists of his age-at University of California, San Francisco, working on chromosome condensation and the condensin complex. From there, he accepted a position at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, where he continued his research on condensin and cohesion.
J. Roger Hirl studied liberal arts and business in college, but entered chemical industry due to a job for Skelly Oil Company. Hirl moved on to Olin Mathieson Chemical Company (later known as Olin Corporation), where he was notably active in litigation regarding DDT sediments and mercury emissions. In 1983, Hirl joined Occidental Chemical Corporation and became interested in environmental concerns, most notably including his involvement in the Love Canal situation.
Yasushi Hiromi was born in Kaizuka City, Japan. At the University of Tokyo he worked on Drosophila genetics in Yoshiki Hotta's lab and decided to study biology. He continued in Hotta's lab for graduate school. There he met Walter Gehring, later taking a postdoc in his lab. He discovered the ftz gene, leading to an interest in the central nervous system. He accepted a second postdoc in Corey Goodman's lab at Stanford and then UC Berkeley, where he worked with Chris Doe on the seven-up gene, which he took with him when he joined the faculty at Princeton University. Now, he looks forward to returning to Japan, where there is less emphasis on grant-writing, and he can exploit the joy he feels in solving problems.
Carrol A. Hochwalt studied at the University of Dayton, where he received a PhD in chemical engineering. After his university studies, Hochwalt got a position at Dayon Metal Products, where Hochwalt worked with Charles Kettering and Thomas Midgley, Jr., on lead tetraethyl and other antiknock compounds. Hochwalt moved on to Monsanto Company, where he oversaw research development.
Darleane Hoffman was born in Terril, Iowa. She graduated high school in 1944 as co-valedictorian of her class and decided to enter Iowa State College, Ames to study applied art; Prof. Nellie Naylor's required freshman chemistry class changed her mind. Hoffman found chemistry the most interesting, most logical, most useful" possible subject. During her senior year, she began undergraduate research with Prof. Don Martin at the newly completed Synchrotron, and continued research for her PhD there, receiving her degree in only three years. In 1952 Hoffman took a position at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. She was then promised a position in the Radiochemistry Division at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, New Mexico, but there was nothing in writing and Hoffmann encountered numerous roadblocks, including being told "We don't hire women in that Division" to having her Q-clearance lost. Finally, in March 1953 she managed to join Dr. Roderick Spence's Radiochemistry group. She published many papers on radiochemical separations and the discovery of Plutonium-244 in nature. During the years in Los Alamos she received a Guggenheim award to work in Berkeley with Glenn Seaborg and became the first woman technical division leader. In 1984 Hoffman was offered a tenured professorship in the Chemistry Department at UC Berkeley, the second woman full professor, and became Heavy Element Nuclear and Radiochemistry Group Leader at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Her group confirmed the discovery of element 106, enabling the discoverers to propose the name Seaborgium and she led the struggle with IUPAC to finally confirm it in 1997. She also co-founded the Seaborg Institutes for Transactinium Sciences at Livermore in 1996 and later at Berkeley and Los Alamos. Hoffman won the 1997 National Medal of Science and the Priestley Award in 2000.
Roald Hoffmann was born Roald Safran in Złoczów, Poland, in 1937. When the Nazi Wehrmacht reached Złoczów in 1941, Roald’s family went into hiding, then into a labor camp. His father bribed the guards to allow Roald, his mother, and several other family members to leave, but was himself executed soon after. Roald’s family spent the remainder of the war in hiding. The family then moved to Krakow, Roald’s mother remarried, and they acquired the surname Hoffmann from bought identity papers they used to emigrate to Prague and, eventually, to the United States. After graduating from Stuyvesant High School and completing his bachelor’s degree at the Columbia University, Hoffmann went to Harvard University for a graduate program in chemical physics, planning to work with William E. Moffitt. Moffitt’s death led Hoffmann to Martin Gouterman, then to William Lipscomb. His PhD in theoretical chemistry focused on boron hydrides. During a Junior Fellowship at Harvard, he applied the extended Hückel method he had developed for the boron hydride calculations to organic molecules. In 1965, Hoffmann took up a faculty position at Cornell University. He describes the role of computers in his work, both at Harvard and at Cornell, his approach to establishing and leading a research group, his interactions with colleagues, his collaborations with R. B. Woodward, and the experience and impact of winning the Nobel Prize. He also discusses his writing projects, which include poetry, plays—including Oxygen, which he cowrote with Carl Djerassi—and popular works exploring science and religion. Throughout the discussion, Hoffmann returns to the themes of building bridges between branches of chemistry, between chemistry and physics, between science and the humanities, and between academia and the public.
J. Paul Hogan received a BS in chemistry and physics and first taught high school and undergraduate chemistry and physics, but spent most of his career with Phillips Petroleum Company. At Phillips, Hogan worked primarily with polymers and collaborated with Grant Bailey, Alfred Clark, and Robert L. Banks, with whom he discovered polypropylene.
Nancy M. Hollingsworth was born in San Francisco, California and attended Oregon State University. She began working in Peter Dawson's lab very early in her undergraduate career, doing crosses and measuring map distances between genes in Tribolium. A summer course at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts helped her decide to attend the University of Washington for doctoral studies. There, she worked in the lab of Breck E. Byers, ultimately developing a mutant screen for yeast recombination proteins and subsequently identifying the HOP1 mutant. After several postdocs, she accepted a position at the State University of New York, Stony Brook, researching the recombinant promoter gene MSH5 in yeast and the roles of the Mms4/Mus81complex and of Mek1 in recombination.
John L. Holmes was born in North London, United Kingdom. World War II disrupted his education, when his school was evacuated from London to the West Country, but by Christmas 1939 Holmes had returned to London. He remained in London for the duration of the war, and vividly recalls the London Blitz. After high school, Holmes became a trainee analytical chemist at Glaxo Laboratories;while working, he pursued his education part time at Acton Technical College, eventually passing the London External BSc examination in chemistry. During graduate studies at University College London he studied thermal decomposition of alkyl iodides under the mentorship of Allan Maccoll. After earning his PhD, Holmes fulfilled his National Service requirement at the National Coal Board then took up a postdoc in Ottawa at the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, doing photochemistry of trifluoromethyl radicals with aromatic substrates. After a frustrating two-year interlude at the University of Edinburgh, Holmes returned to Ottawa, accepting a position as assistant professor in the Chemistry Department at the University of Ottawa. He began work on the kinetics of hydrogen atom reactions, but soon found himself volunteering to take on a leadership role in the department’s nascent center for mass spectrometry. Throughout the interview, Holmes recounts his evolving research interests, his collaborations with Fred Lossing, Hans Terlouw and others, his teaching and mentoring work, as well as the changing funding climate in Canada, the growth of the University of Ottawa, his experiences at international scientific meetings, and his work as editor of Organic Mass Spectrometry. Holmes concludes the interview with a discussion of his passion for sailing.
Christine E. Holt was born in Wylam, England. She attended the University of Sussex, where she worked with John Maynard Smith and Michael F. Land, who encouraged her to undertake graduate studies. She received a Science Research Council fellowship and worked with John H. Scholes at the Medical Research Council (MRC) Cell Biophysics Unit, unifying her interests in genetics and neurobiology. William A. Harris introduced her to using an electrophysiological mapping system with Xenopus, after which she decided to undertake her postdoctoral studies with him at the University of California, San Diego. Her research focused on disproving the mechanospatial theory of brain development and contributing to the reaffirmation of Roger W. Sperry's chemoaffinity theory. She eventually earned a professorship at UCSD, where she remains.
Jeffrey T. Holt was born and raised in Battle Creek, Michigan. He attended Kalamazoo College in Michigan, intending to pursue both music and premed majors, though he ultimately gave up music. After completing medical school he went on to his residency at the Strong Memorial Hospital at the University of Rochester, before beginning postdoctoral work in the Arthur W. Nienhuis lab at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. He went on to a faculty position in the Departments of Cell Biology and of Pathology at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. Holt talks about the ways medical practice differs from research, applying insights in pathology to cancer research, and the difficulties in applying molecular biology cancer research in practice.
David P. Holveck begins his oral history by discussing his childhood in Philadelphia and his initial intent on becoming a physical therapist. After three years in the Navy, Holveck took a sales position at Blood Plasma and Components, and moved on to marketing, management, and executive positions at Abbott Laboratories, Corning Glass Works, General Electric Company, Centocor, and Johnson and Johnson. Holveck describes his involvement in the biotech industry, the evolution of X-ray technology, as well as the development of products such as Centoxin, Remicade, and ReoPro.
Richard E. Honig was born in Göttingen, Germany, the eldest of three boys. He attended Robert College, an American college in Istanbul, from which he graduated with a bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering. In 1938, Honig moved to the United States to pursue a PhD in Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Through a course in nuclear physics, he became interested in the nature of atoms, molecules and particularly isotopes, and eventually built his own mass spectrometer to study the effects of deuterium and cyclotron radiation on methane. His thesis on the nature of gas flow in that mass spectrometer was written under the direction of Clark Goodman. In 1946, Honig accepted a position at Socony-Vacuum Labs in Paulsboro, New Jersey, where he was able to continue the pursuit of his interest in the study of small hydrocarbon molecules with mass spectrometry. Honig joined the research staff at the Radio Corporation of America Laboratories in Princeton, New Jersey, in 1950, where he remained for the rest of his long career. His work began in Don North's group, studying materials used in hot cathodes. He designed and built a two-stage mass spectrometer, which led a few years later to the development of a secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS). He spent a year during the mid-1950's at the University of Brussels helping to start a mass spectrometry laboratory with Jean Drowart. Honig's career at RCA focused on materials characterization, particularly impurities in semiconductor materials, first with mass spectrometry and then later with a variety of surface analysis techniques when he became head of the newly formed Materials Characterization Research Group there in the mid-1960's. His long-time interest in cluster formation led to his measurement of elemental vapor pressures as a function of temperature and the evaluation of previously reported values for these quantities. Honig stepped down from his managerial position in 1982 and spent the next several years back in the laboratory helping to design and build a new mass spectrometer to study the organic materials on surfaces.
Masao Horiba begins his oral history by discussing his childhood, schooling, and life during World War II in Japan, where Horiba earned a BS in physics and established his own laboratory, Horiba Radio Laboratory (later incorporated as HORIBA, Ltd. ). Horiba's company built and improved upon a pH meter, among various other products, and, by the 1960s, began producing Hitachi, Ltd's analytical instrumentation, as well as a new analyzer for testing automobile emissions. HORIBA, Ltd. went public in 1971, and Horiba reflects on his still-thriving business and innovations in corporate management.