Phillip A. Sharp's oral history interview begins with a discussion of his family, then discusses his childhood in Falmouth, Kentucky. He received his BA in chemistry and math from Union College in 1966. Then, Sharp went on to earn his PhD in chemistry from the University of Illinois. Sharp went to Caltech initially for his post-doctoral studies, but after three years he joined James Watson's virology lab at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory to learn more about cell biology. In 1974, Sharp accepted an invitation at the newly created Center for Cancer Research at MIT. In 1977, Sharp and Richard J. Roberts discovered split genes, which led to the discovery of RNA splicing for which they shared the Nobel Prize in 1993. Sharp eventually became head of the biology department and director of the Center for Cancer Research. Moreover, Sharp was instrumental in the establishment of one of the first biotech companies, Genentech, Inc and he helped establish Biogen, Inc. Sharp concludes the interview with reflections on the significance of the neuroscience research community that currently surrounds and includes Harvard University.
Michael D. Sheets was born in West Lafayette, Indiana. In undergrad, he did not see a clear science path, but a counselor encouraged him to get lab experience. Excited by molecular biology, he applied to the University of Wisconsin because they could provide a good general science education. There Michael worked on polyadenylation of RNA in Marvin Wickens's lab. Sheets accepted a postdoc at University of California, Berkeley, working in John Gerhart's laboratory, where he developed an antibody library for studying gene function during frog development. Today, Sheets continues his research at University of Wisconsin on regulating gene expression in vertebrate development. He works at the bench, teaches, writes grant proposals and journal articles, and ponders the applicability of his research for clinical use.
James L. Sherley was born in Memphis, Tennessee. As a child, he liked performing experiments and soon decided he wanted to be a microbiologist. Though he was high school valedictorian, the title was given to the Caucasian salutatorian instead. As the listed salutatorian, he still gave the valediction because the true salutatorian insisted. At Harvard Sherley joined Mark Ptashne's lab, where he worked on lambda phage and tumor repression. Interested in studying cancer, he joined the MD/PhD program at Johns Hopkins University, where he studied thymidine kinase in Thomas J. Kelly's lab. After a postdoc at Princeton, he became an associate member at the Fox Chase Cancer Center, where he stayed for seven years before joining the faculty of MIT.
Kevan M. Shokat was raised in Albany, California. His parents were active politically, participating in anti-war and anti-shah movements during the 1970s that culminated in the 1979 Iranian Revolution. While Shokat's high school was vocationally-minded, a guidance counselor suggested he attend Reed College. He did, majoring in chemistry. He completed his thesis with Ronald W. McClard, making inhibitors of enzymes, and doing enzyme kinetics and nucleotide metabolism. While attending grad school at University of California, Berkeley, he worked with Peter G. Schultz in biological chemistry in antibody catalysis. He later accepted a position at Princeton University and received the Pew Scholars Program award. He left Princeton for a position at the University of California, San Francisco, undertaking chemical genetic research on kinases and their substrates.
James N. Shoolery begins his oral history interview by discussing growing up during the Depression and his early interests in chemistry. His education at University of California, Berkeley, was interrupted by World War II, during which he served in the US Navy. Shoolery decided to pursue a PhD in chemistry at the California Institute of Technology and worked under Don M. Yost on microwave spectroscopy. Shoolery wrote to Varian Associates, Inc. about the possibility of his coming to work there on applications for nuclear magnetic resonance; he spent nearly forty years working there.
Stewart H. Shuman was born in Queens, New York. His high school offered an advanced program in science; he recalls especially enjoying an exciting biology class. He also took a college-level class and attended a National Science Foundation program while in high school. He graduated summa cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa from Wesleyan University and completed his MD/PhD degree at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva Unversity. He began his career at Massachusetts General Hospital, then moved to the Laboratory of Viral Diseases at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). From there he joined Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York City, where he remains today. He has published many articles about his work with capping enzyme in vaccinia virus and covalent catalysis.
Kenneth F. Siebel begins his oral history interview with a discussion of his undergraduate studies at the University of Wisconsin. Shortly after earning his MBA Siebel formed his own investment banking firm Robertson, Coleman, and Siebel in 1969. While building it into a highly successful firm, he underwrote many now famous technology companies. The conversation then turns to Siebel's commitment to conservation and his involvement in Conservation International. It was through Conservation International that Siebel became friends with another board member, Gordon E. Moore. Finally, the interview focuses on the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, from its launch through Siebel's presentday involvement as a board member.
Rudolf Signer starts his oral history interview by talking about his family background in Switzerland and his study of chemistry at ETH. Graduate research on polyoxymethylenes with Staudinger introduced Signer to the young field of polymer chemistry. A Rockefeller Fellowship enabled Signer to work with Svedberg at Uppsala and with Bragg at Manchester. Signer concludes with recollections of a post-war tour of the United States and of his memories of Staudinger.
Howard E. Simmons, Jr. begins his oral history interview describing his family history. Drawn to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) because of its post-World War II reputation, he studied chemistry and conducted research under Jack D. Roberts. Earning a BS in 1951, he continued at MIT with Roberts and Arthur C. Cope, completing a PhD. Simmons became a member of research staff in the Central Research Department (CRD) at DuPont in 1954. His early studies on structure and mechanisms led to the Simmons-Smith reaction, the first general synthesis of cyclopropanes, and a related patent. He closes with a description of his sons' DuPont careers and comments on scientific misconduct.
In this interview, Dr. Sinfelt recalls his childhood during the Depression, his early education, and his interest in mathematics. Sinfelt describes the University of Illinois chemistry department under Roger Adams and his own studies under Harry Drickamer. Moving on to the Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Sinfelt describes how his research on catalytic reaction kinetics meshed with Exxon's increased emphasis on basic research and how this led to his discovery of bimetallic clusters and the success of the platinum-iridium catalyst.
Michael K. Skinner won a wrestling scholarship to Warner Pacific College, but left the sport to focus on studying. His chemistry teacher, William Davis, persuaded Skinner to transfer to Reed College, where he shifted his interest from radiation chemistry to biochemistry. Skinner went to Michael Griswold’s lab at Washington State University, where he learned biochemistry techniques and picked up molecular biology. He began his life’s work in reproductive biology, working in proteins. Finishing his PhD in three years, he continued his focused approach in Irving Fritz’s lab at C.H. Best Institute at University of Toronto, learning a great deal of physiology. Skinner worked on Sertoli cells, and he found a mesenchymal conductor in testis. During his postdoc he had seven to ten publications. Skinner was recruited to Vanderbilt University’s large, excellent reproductive unit by Marie-Claire Orgebin-Crist.
Cedomir Sliepcevich begins his oral history interview with a description of his family and early years in Montana. After transferring to the University of Michigan for chemical engineering, he received his BS, MS and PhD. While a graduate student, Sliepcevich studied thermodynamics under George Granger Brown. During World War II, he worked on a National Defense Research Council classified project and worked as a consultant for the US Army V-2 rocket test program. In 1955, he joined the faculty of the University of Oklahoma as Professor and Chairman of Chemical Engineering. Sliepcevich was instrumental in establishing the Flame Dynamics Laboratory. He founded his own firm, University Engineers, Inc., in 1963, which specialized in fire protection systems for liquid natural gas. The interview is not available in audio format.
Emil Smith begins his oral history interview by discussing his undergraduate study of biology at Columbia University. He received a Guggenheim fellowship to Cambridge University until the outbreak of World War II. Smith accepted a position at the University of Utah and later University of California, Los Angeles. Smith describes his research interests: peptidases, immunoglobulins, cytochromes, subtilisin, histones, and glutamate dehydrogenases.
Gioia Smith has lived in Ambler all her life. She worked in the social service department at Head Start and is active in the NAACP, the American Legion, and her church. Smith first became aware of Ambler's asbestos hazard when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began its cleanup of the Ambler Asbestos Area. When a proposed high-rise on the BoRit site brought the asbestos fears to the forefront again Smith worried more about displacement of the nearby poor people and about taxes. Smith laments the loss of the small-town feel of Ambler, describing all the old small businesses that are gone now. She says that the revitalization of the town is due mainly to restaurants and to outsiders. Smith continues to attend meetings of the BoRit community advisory group (CAG).
Henry I. Smith begins his oral history interview describing his childhood in New Jersey and his early aptitude in science. After obtaining an undergraduate degree at Holy Cross, Smith earned a master's degree and PhD at Boston College. Smith established a Submicron Structures Laboratory with MIT funding. He concludes the interview by offering some insights on the semiconductor industry, and how to best develop a research culture that stimulates innovation.
Lloyd M. Smith grew up in Berkeley, California, one of four children. His father was a physicist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and his mother a professor of mathematics. Smith attended the University of California, Berkeley; there he liked biology, chemistry and physics and chose to major in biochemistry. He worked in Wayne Hubbell's lab, studying membranes and synthetic chemistry. On Hubbell's advice he enrolled in graduate school at Stanford University, entering Harden McConnell's lab to work on diffusion in membranes, obtaining his PhD in biophysics. He accepted a postdoc with Leroy Hood at the California Institute of Technology. During months of sequencing he thought up the first fluorescence-based automated DNA sequencing instrument. Working with Michael Hunkapiller on commercialization of his technology, he became a consultant for Applied Biosystems (ABI). Smith accepted an assistant professorship at the University of Wisconsin, eventually becoming Director of the Genome Center and Chair of the Analytical Sciences Division in the Department of Chemistry. There Smith developed another laser system for sequence analysis and began the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) on nucleic acids. He also founded his own company, Third Wave Technologies.
Charles P. Smyth begins his oral history interview discussing his undergraduate education at Princeton and his tenure at the National Bureau of Standards and the Chemical Warfare Service during the First World War. Smyth discusses his PhD training at Harvard and his return to Princeton as an instructor. His work on dipole moment led to an important discovery about benzene ring structure that proved the Kekulé model correct. The interview ends with a discussion of Smyth's work on deuterium and the Manhattan Project. In the appendix, Scientist in a Jeep," Smyth narrates a detailed account of his work in the US, France and Germany with the ALSOS Mission.
Martin Snider worked with Joseph Steim, a biophysical chemist interested in the functionality of membranes, while matriculating at Brown University. Encouraged by Joan Lusk, Snider entered Eugene Kennedy’s lab at Harvard University. Snider chose to do postdoctoral work at MIT where he began his research into glycoprotein synthesis in the lab of Phillips Robbins. Funding and lack of distractions at Carnegie Institution for Science allowed Snider to concentrate on new and productive research into vesicular traffic. When it was time for Snider and his wife to establish their own labs, they settled on Case Western Reserve University. Snider has continued his vesicular traffic work, but he has also returned to glycoprotein synthesis, where he says he has new tools to address old problems.
Gábor Somorjai was born in Budapest, Hungary, during World War II. He eventually matriculated in Minta Gimnázium and was accepted to the Budapest University of Technology and Economics, studying chemical engineering. When the Russian tanks rolled into Budapest, Somorjai escaped to Austria and learned about Charles Tobias at the University of California, Berkeley. He immigrated to the United States, eventually accepted at by Berkeley, working with Richard Powell. Somorjai accepted a job at International Business Machines. He built an instrument for his research into low-energy electron diffraction, and observed that catalytic reactions take place on surfaces. Somorjai is called the father of surface science. He is working on heterogenizing homogeneous catalysis to yield hybrid catalysis, and attempting to figure out how to do enzyme catalysis in a hybrid model with heterogeneous catalysis, and then working out how multiple catalysts work. He maintains that the “discovery of [his] life” is that catalytic reactions are controlled by the size and shape of nanoparticles; when two-dimensional they form a Langmuir-Blodgett film, and when three-dimensional they are useful to industry.
John Sondek grew up in Lewiston, New York. He took his first biochemistry class in high school, but his first research experience occurred during college at the University of Rochester, where he became very interested in biochemistry as a career. He attended graduate school at Johns Hopkins University with David Shortle, and then took a postdoctoral fellowship with Paul Sigler at Yale University. He found that Shortle and Sigler had different mentoring styles, both of which influenced his own. Sondek then accepted a position at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. He discusses his obligation to provide service to his professional community and to promote the national science agenda, as well as his current research in the structural biology of signal transduction and practical applications of his work.
For more information on this oral history, please contact the Director of the Center for Oral History.
Harold Sorgenti begins his oral history interview discussing his family background and childhood in New York City. He attended public school in Brooklyn and graduated City College with a BS in chemical engineering. He found a job after college at Battelle Memorial Institute, and while working received his masters in chemical engineering from Ohio State University. He joined the Atlantic Richfield Oil Corporation (ARCO), where he was quickly promoted into management. After a long career with ARCO Sorgenti undertook entrepreneurial ventures. Sorgenti ends the interview by reflecting on his philanthropic involvements and family life.
Philippe M. Soriano grew up in New York City, with parents of French descent. Soriano's childhood trips to France persuaded him to attend the University of Paris, where he worked with DNA sequences in higher mammals in the lab of Giorgio Bernardi. His work on DNA cloning and fractionation techniques earned Soriano two doctorates, and he taught cDNA cloning in South Africa and Tunisia, a topic he uses to discuss science in Third World countries, his international perspective, and the danger of scientific inbreeding. Soriano began a postdoc in the Jaenisch lab in Hamburg, which later moved to MIT, then left for a position at Baylor College of Medicine. He discusses his future research and his plans to move to the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle.
This interview describes Dr. Edgar W. Spanagel's life, focusing on his contributions to nylon research at the DuPont Company. Spanagel grew up in Wisconsin and attended Lawrence College. Spanagel secured a scholarship to McGill University, where he worked under Charles F. H. Allen. Spanagel, completed his PhD in 1933. He accepted a position as a DuPont Research Chemist in Wallace Carothers' polymer group.
Jack B. St. Clair begins his oral history with a description of his childhood in Virginia and Louisiana. After Tulane University, he accepted a position as technical trainee, gas department, at Shell Oil Company's Houston, Texas refinery. Despite the lack of formal training, St. Clair readily accepted increasing responsibilities, recognizing he was being groomed for higher management After briefly serving as Houston refinery superintendent, he reluctantly moved to England as Shell International Petroleum Company, North American Division head and later the New York Head Office general manager and was quickly promoted to Shell Chemical Company president in 1967.
Jonathan S. Stamler was born near Oxford, England. Despite barely graduating high school, his father got him into Brandeis University, where he wanted only to play tennis. After a hazing injury took him off the court, he decided to pass the time by studying. By sophomore year he was pre-med. He finished Phi Beta Kappa and was accepted to Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. He found his preceptor, Ray Matta, who inspired Stamler to study cardiology. While doing his residency at Brigham and Women's Hospital, he read about free radicals and started researching them. Eventually he came upon nitric oxide, still his area of interest. After a few fellowships, he ended up at Duke University, where he received tenure in two years.
William S. Stavropoulos begins his oral history interview with a discussion of his family, his childhood, and education in Bridgehampton, New York. In 1961, Stavropoulos attended Fordham University, where he received a BS in pharmacy. Having received his PhD in medical chemistry from the University of Washington, Stavropoulos was hired at Dow Chemical as a research chemist. In 1980, he became Commercial Vice President of Dow Latin America. In 1995, Dr. Stavropoulos was named CEO of Dow Chemical Company. Dr. Stavropoulos concludes the interview with his thoughts on winning the American Chemical Industry Medal in 2001.
Richard Stein starts his oral history interview by reflecting on his education Brooklyn Technical High School and Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. Stein accepted a Textile Foundation fellowship at Princeton University. Stein was appointed to an assistant professorship in the chemistry department of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and the Polymer Research Institute.
Leo H. Sternbach begins his oral history interview with a discussion of his family and childhood in Austria and Poland during the First World War. He enrolled in a PhD program in organic chemistry at the Swiss Federal Institute. After beginning work with Hoffmann-La Roche in Basel, increasing pressure to leave Switzerland compelled him to immigrate to the United States, where he continued work with the company in Nutley, New Jersey. Sternbach recalls that he was instructed to terminate his study of benzodiazepines but continued the research unofficially, which led to his significant discoveries of Librium, Valium, and other related drugs.
Walter Stockmayer first became interested in the mathematical aspects of physical chemistry as an undergraduate at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). A Rhodes Scholarship brought him to Oxford, where he undertook gas kinetics research. Stockmayer earned a PhD at MIT. Much of the interview disscusses Stockmayer's polymer research at MIT and later Dartmouth.
Markus Stoffel was born in Cologne, Germany. He was interested in science from an early age, and spent an influential high school year abroad in Cambridge, England, where he was struck by the specialization of the educational system. Interested in medicine, Stoffel began studying at Rheinische Friedrich-Willhelms-Universität, but was soon drawn back to Cambridge University. Next, Stoffel took an internship at University of Hamburg and another at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in New York. Influenced by a budding interest in the genetics of diabetes, Stoffel worked under Graeme I. Bell at the University of Chicago, before accepting a position at Rockefeller University, working on a chromosome 20 project and looking at the genes and transcription factors involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.
Gilbert Stork begins his interview with a description of his childhood and family background in Paris. Stork and his family moved to the United States in 1939. Stork earned his BS at the University of Florida in 1942, and in 1945 he received his PhD in organic chemistry from the University of Wisconsin. Stork’s graduate work and early career focused on synthesis related to quinine and stereochemical control in synthesis. His first employment after receiving his PhD was with Lakeside Laboratories, working on estrone synthesis. Stork left Lakeside in 1946 and began an instructorship at Harvard University. While at Harvard, he also consulted for the Syntex Corporation. In 1953, Stork left Harvard and joined the faculty of Columbia University, where he continued his organic synthesis research. Stork concludes the interview with a discussion of various developments in organic chemistry, the future of university research funding, and memorable students and co-workers.
Carlyle B. Storm begins the interview describing his family background. After earning a PhD, Storm became a professor of chemistry at Howard University. In the early 1980s, he accepted a position at Los Alamos National Laboratory, where he researched conventional high explosives as chief scientist. Much of the interview focuses on Storm's involvement with the Gordon Research Conferences which included his becoming director in 1993.
Andrew Streitwieser begins his oral history interview by describing his family, early education, and education at Columbia University, stressing the influence of William Doering upon his work. Streitwieser describes the emergence of organic chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley, and his own ambitious and productive research program there.
Michel Streuli was born in Zürich, Switzerland. In school he liked mathematics and engineering. He had always wanted to be a doctor and a scientist, and based on its pediatrics program, he attended Tufts University. Then he returned to Zürich to work in Charles Weissman's lab, where he worked on cloning interferon. After five years, he took a position at Dana-Farber Cancer Center to work in Stuart F. Schlossman's lab. He found a place in Haruo Saito's lab, working on cloning antigens, specifically the antigen CD45, the leukocyte common antigen. He then accepted an assistant professorship at the Dana-Farber Cancer Center and Harvard University. He is now an associate professor and continues his research. He hopes that his work, which is aimed at understanding the basic mechanisms of the cell, may help others develop new cancer therapies and diagnostic tools.
Lubert Stryer was born in China, where his family lived until he was about ten. During World War II, his family escaped notice of the Japanese, and after the war obtained visas for the United States. In high school, Stryer planned to become a lawyer, but the head of the science department asked him to do some research on bioluminescent bacteria, and Lubert was hooked. By his last year of medical school at Harvard, Stryer knew that he did not want to practice medicine and began a career in research. He worked with Nobel Prize winners in Cambridge, then Stanford, and finally gained a professorship at Yale before returning to Stanford. Using the notes he developed for his class in biochemistry Stryer wrote his now-canonical textbook.
P. Todd Stukenberg attended Colgate University, where he designed his own molecular biology curriculum, working in Ken Burns’ lab. He did a joint PhD at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Cornell University Medical College, where he discovered sliding clamps while working in Michael O’Donnell’s lab. For postdoctoral work he entered Marc Kirschner’s lab, where he patented in vitro expression cloning. He began his still-continuing work on Aurora B and kinetochore complex Ndc80 and collaborated on Pin1 with Kun Ping Lu. Stukenberg accepted a job offer from the University of Virginia. Believing yeast training to be important, he established a friendship and collaboration with Daniel Burke. He found that Ndc80 complex worked well in Xenopus and developed the use of egg extracts. He explains why he promotes Aurora B as a new class of oncogenes. He explains how kinetochore is involved in binding microtubules and sending a spindle checkpoint signal, for which he has coined the phrase “ionic spaghetti.”
David J. Sullivan, Jr., grew up in Birmingham, Alabama, surrounded by a large and supportive family. He cites the importance of his family's Catholicism, strong work ethic, and their emphasis on Scouting in fostering his interests. His scientific interests blossomed throughout the 1980s against the backdrop of HIV and other infectious diseases, and he became interested in bioethics during medical school. Sullivan also worked at a clinic in Mussoorie, India, during the last few months of medical school, an experience he describes in detail. During his residency at Washington University in St. Louis, Sullivan worked with Daniel E. Goldberg and concentrated his infectious disease research on Malaria. Continuing his efforts on heme crystallization and Zinc photoporphyrin-9, Sullivan brought his research to Johns Hopkins University, where he is today.
Hong Sun was born in Beijing during the Cultural Revolution. This provided a chaotic education, including a year of re-education in the countryside and family separation. The return of the college admission program allowed Sun to pursue her interest in science at Beijing Medical College. She took part in the school's research program, studying the binding affinity of monoclonal antibodies against aflatoxin. Sun received first place in the China United States Biochemistry Examination and Admission (CUSBEA) program examination and attended Harvard University for her doctorate. There, she worked with Jack W. Szostak on the recombination process in meiosis. Next, she took a postdoctoral position at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory with Nicholas K. Tonks, researching the protein tyrosine phosphatase and MKP-1. She is now at Yale University.
Karel Svoboda was born in Prague, Czechoslovakia, but grew up in Germany. Wanting to avoid Germany's mandatory military service, Svoboda attended undergrad in the United States at Cornell University, where he worked in a number of research labs. After a year teaching in Nepal, he went to Harvard for graduate studies. His love of Bell Laboratories during his undergraduate years brought him back there for postdoctoral research on synapses with Winfred Denk and David Tank, and gave him the opportunity to take an influential course on neural systems at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. Svoboda is now at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, studying biophysical neuroscience in neocortical circuits and their plasticity, with the intent of expanding his work to ensembles of neocortical circuits.
Michael Szwarc begins with his early interest in science while growing up in Poland, leading to his studies at the Warsaw Polytechnic Institute. Szwarc next describes his experiences from 1935, when he emigrated to Israel, until his move to the University of Manchester in 1945 where he worked with Michael Polanyi on polymerization. Subsequently, he held a professorship at SUNY, Syracuse.
Herbert Tabor begins his interview discussing growing up during the Depression in Manhattan, New York,. After spending two years at City College, he transferred to Harvard University, where he graduated with an AB in biochemical science in 1937. He earned his MD then entered the Public Health Service of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), studying electrolyte changes in burn and shock victims. Tabor also discusses his work on the editorial board of the Journal of Biological Chemistry.
Esther Takeuchi grew up in Akron, Ohio. She majored in history and chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania, where she was often the lone woman in her classes. Takeuchi completed her PhD in Harold Shechter’s lab at the Ohio State University. Takeuchi chose industry over academia, taking a job at Union Carbide Corporation (UCC), working on catalysis. She did postdoctoral work at the University of North Carolina. Takeuchi accepted a position as senior chemist at Greatbatch, Inc., rediscovering the use of silver vanadium oxide (SVO) in oil-drilling batteries and adapted the chemistry for an implantable cardiac defibrillator. During her twenty-three years at Greatbatch, Takeuchi rose up in management positions, culminating in Chief Scientist at the Center for Excellence. As the Greatbatch Professor of Chemical and Biological Engineering at SUNY Buffalo, Takeuchi was awarded the National Medal of Technology and Innovation. Takeuchi is currently the Distinguished Professor of Chemistry and Materials Science and Engineering in a joint appointment with Brookhaven National Laboratory and SUNY Stonybrook.
William S. Talbot grew up in Gainesville, Florida. Although he did not appreciate it at the time, growing up in a university town provided him with access to several influential teachers. For example, a science project brought him into the lab of Edward Wakeland to work on the nature and extent of variation in wild mouse populations. Talbot continued working with Wakeland as an undergraduate at University of Florida, Gainesville. He moved to graduate studies at Stanford University, working with David S. Hogness on the hormonal control of metamorphosis in Drosophila. After a postdoc, he accepted a position at the Skirball Institute, where he researched the genes involved in tissue development of zebrafish. Soon, Talbot returned to Stanford, where he works in vertebrate developmental biology.
Song Tan was born in London, England, and lived in Singapore and the US during his childhood. He remembers always being interested in science, especially the chemical elements. He was in an honors program in high school that allowed students to work in university labs around Miami. He worked in Richard Doepker's lab at the University of Miami, where he analyzed the products of burning plastic. Tan took fourth place in the Westinghouse Talent Search; he used his scholarship at Cornell University, which had the added attraction of a synchrotron. He majored in physics, but with a concentration in biochemistry. At the University of Cambridge, he worked with Trevor Lamb and Timothy Richmond. Tan moved with Richmond to Zürich, Switzerland. Upon finishing his work with Richmond, Tan accepted an assistant professorship at Penn State University.
Morris Tanenbaum grew up in Huntington, West Virginia, one of three children. His Jewish parents had come from Russia and Poland by way of Buenos Aires, Argentina; they owned a delicatessen, in which Morris worked after school. Tanenbaum chose to attend Johns Hopkins University because of its reputation for chemistry. He liked physical chemistry and physics; one of his professors, Clark Bricker, who was leaving for Princeton University, convinced Tanenbaum to accept a research assistantship there and to obtain a PhD. Tanenbaum worked on spectroscopy in Bricker's lab and the mechanical properties of metal single crystals in Walter Kauzmann's lab. After being awarded his PhD, Tanenbaum went to work at Bell Laboratories where he did the original studies of single crystal III-V semiconductors. He, with the assistance of Ernest Buehler, made the world's first silicon transistor. Working with Calvin Fuller, Tanenbaum invented the diffused base silicon transistor using solid-state diffusion. While at Bell Labs, Tanenbaum worked in Metallurgy and Materials Science, the Research Division, and the Electron Device Division. Western Electric recruited Tanenbaum to lead its new Engineering Research Center. There, he recruited PhD's in the physical sciences and engineering with an interest in applications for the manufacturing floor. He later became Vice President of Engineering for all of Western Electric and then Vice President for Transmission Equipment. Tanenbaum was called back to Bell Labs as Executive Vice President with responsibility for all of development. Then he moved to AT&T Corporate Offices as Senior Vice President of Engineering and Network Services. He later served as President of New Jersey Bell. In 1980, he was called back to AT&T as Executive Vice President for Administration. During that period, he was much involved in the Federal antitrust case against AT&T that was eventually settled by a Consent Degree that separated AT&T into several independent companies (the "Baby Bells") providing local telephone service and AT&T retaining Western Electric, most of Bell Labs, and the long distance services. His final position was CFO and Vice Chairman of the AT&T Board of Directors.