After briefly describing his graduate work at the University of Illinois and a summer job at Du Pont, Allan Hay begins the story of his career at General Electric. There, after only a very short time, he was able to oxidize xylenol to synthesize PPO. Hay focuses on the practical applications as well as the chemical aspects of the progress that occurred in plastics research (including the developments of Noryl and Ultem) during his career as both a research chemist and a manager at GE He concludes with a bit of insight into what lies ahead in polymer research and development.
Oliver Hayden served in clinical laboratories and other assignments in the US Army Sanitation Corps during World War I. He joined the Fisk Rubber Company, where he gained experience in rubber compounding and quality control. Hayden then moved to the Organic Chemicals Department of Du Pont, where he worked in screening chemicals for use in the rubber industry, the development of neoprene, and became Manager of the Rubber Laboratory.
Robert Hayes graduated from UCLA in 1947 with a BA in mathematics, and afterwards was drafted into the Navy. He recounts his acceptance into the Navy's V-12 program, and the courses he took for that program at the University of Colorado at Boulder. After the War, Hayes returned to UCLA, where he earned his MA in mathematics in 1949, and his PhD in mathematics in 1952. In 1969, Joseph Becker and Robert Hayes started Becker and Hayes Incorporated, with the purpose of creating an interlibrary network for the State of Washington. Hayes discusses the obstacles he and Becker overcame to accomplish that task, and goes on to recount his work with NCLIS and the SILC system. Hayes concludes the interview with his interpretation of the relationship between information science and library science, and the importance of libraries and librarians.
Thomas S. Hays was born in Winter Haven, Florida and attended the University of North Carolina. After graduation he spent three years as a technician in Bruce Niklas's lab at Duke University, where he became fascinated by mitosis. He was accepted into the PhD program at the University of North Carolina to work in Edward Salmon's lab, where he researched spindle poles and micotubules. He spent summers with Salmon at Woods Hole Marine Biology Laboratory. Soon, he decided to switch to genetics and took a postdoc with Margaret Fuller at the University of Colorado. He then accepted a job at the University of Minnesota. Now tenured, Hays continues to publish, write grants, teach, and ponder the place of science in society.
Xi He was born in Wuhan, China. His father was a professor targeted during the Cultural Revolution. While He's early schooling was "backward", he felt much respect for his teachers. After Mao's death, he attended Huazhong University of Science and Technology. His interest in biology led him to pursue a master's in biomedical engineering, during which time he met Dr. Sidney Sullivan. He attended University of California, San Diego for his PhD, transitioning a different national and academic culture. He worked in Michael G. Rosenfeld's laboratory, researching transcription factors in regulation of brain development. After a postoc at the National Institute of Health, he became a principal investigator at Harvard University, where he researches Wnt cell signaling pathway in gene expression, regulation, and development.
Rebecca W. Heald grew up in Greenville, Pennsylvania. Her father was a chemistry professor at Thiel College in Greenville, and her mother was a chemistry instructor there as well. Heald attended Hamilton College in Clinton, New York, where she majored in chemistry. The department was too small to provide lab work until her last year, when she did her first research project in Donna Brown's biochemistry lab. For two years she worked as a research associate for Sarah Hitchcock-DeGregori, helping her set up her lab in New Jersey, doing some real analysis, and publishing some papers. During her time in Brown's lab, Heald heard Bernardo Nadal-Ginard give a talk that influenced her to apply to Harvard University for graduate school. There she worked with Frank McKeon. She did her postdoctoral fellowship with Eric Karsenti at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelberg, Germany, where her research focused on spindle formation. She accepted a position at the University of California, Berkeley, and set up her lab. Heald concludes the interview by discussing current and planned research on chromosome architecture and mitotic spindle assembly; practical applications of her work; and the impact of the Pew Scholars Program in the Biomedical Sciences award on her work.
The interview traces Richard Heckert's early education and training, from high school and Miami University to Army work as a chemist at Oak Ridge, where management experience influenced his pursuit of a business career. He discusses safety considerations and atomic bomb work and reflects on dropping the bomb and developing atomic energy. Next the interview turns to Heckert's graduate career at the University of Illinois, his interest in organic chemistry, work and relationship with mentor Harold Snyder, and considerations in selecting a research chemist position at DuPont. The majority of the interview details Heckert's experience and rise through management at DuPont: early work with TCNE and tricyanovinyl compounds for dyeing; and various positions at DuPont's Spruance, Clinton, and Circleville plants and in the Film and Plastics Departments.
Upon receiving his PhD under Alan Portis, Alan Heeger took an assistant professorship at the University of Pennsylvania's physics department. At Penn Heeger's interests included spin-wave theory, metal physics, the Kondo problem, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in magnetic materials. Then in 1973, Heeger began investigating polysulfur nitride along with Alan MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa that led to seminal publications on conducting polymers. After twenty years at the University of Pennsylvania, Heeger moved to the University of California at Santa Barbara's physics department, where he continued to conduct his research and collaboration with other scientists.
L. Louis Hegedus grew up in Szolnok, Hungary. After completing the chemical engineering program of the Technical University of Budapest, he was recruited to work at the Research Institute for the Organic Chemical Industry, where he helped develop a polyester process. After touring Europe, Hegedus secured a job as a chemical engineer at Daimler-Benz in Mannheim, Germany. He was next accepted into the chemical engineering PhD program at University of California, Berkeley. He published seven papers from his dissertation and wrote the first book on catalyst poisoning. Hegedus next worked on the catalytic converter for General Motors, then accepted a job as a director of central research at W. R. Grace and Company. He was then recruited to be research vice president for North America at Elf Atochem. Hegedus has retired and founded his own consulting firm, and been a Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the Research Triangle Institute.
Madeline Henderson worked with James Perry and Allen Kent compiling and researching possibilities for a standard chemical notation system for IUPAC selection. Her search for terms for semantic factoring took her throughout the country, where she met many others involved with scientific information, including Eugene Garfield, Claire Schultz, and Saul Herner. She, Perry, and Kent initiated the use of telegraphic abstracts. After working with the National Science Foundation (NSF) as a research analyst, Henderson joined the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) in 1972. She received the Watson-Davis award in 1989 for her service to the American Society for Information Science (ASIS). Henderson concludes the interview with reflections on her fellowship with the American Association for the Advancement of Science and thoughts on pioneers in the field of information science.
David Hercules describes his youth in Somerset, Pennsylvania, and his childhood curiosity with science. Hercules began his professional career at Lehigh University as an assistant professor. He describes how he built a spectroflurometer at Lehigh and did research on photo-induced luminescence. Hercules used ESCA and XPS [x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy] to investigate a variety of phenomena, including heterogeneous catalysis. He also consulted for the Central Intelligence Agency, Instrumentation Laboratories, W. S. Merrill and Company, and Exxon Mobil Corporation. Hercules moved to the University of Georgia after six years at MIT. He then describes the position of analytical chemistry within the chemistry department and the variety of instrumentation that he was able to work with in Georgia. After receiving a Guggenheim Foundation fellowship, he was able to study at Northwestern University with Robert L. Burwell Jr. To continue his work on catalysis, Hercules moved to the University of Pittsburgh [Pitt] after seven years in Georgia. He got to work with an impressive variety of instrumentation at Pitt, and consulted for W. S. Merrill and Exxon.
In 1948, Herner took a job at the engineering and science library at New York University, where he was first introduced to special libraries and the SLA. Two years later, Herner moved to the Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University, and he began developing an interest in user studies. He discusses his involvement in a number of organizations, including the ACS, and his colleagues in information science. In 1953, Herner joined the Atlantic Research Corporation. While there, he began to form his own company, now known as Herner and Company.
Gerhard Herzberg, over the course of his education, studied with Hans Rau, James Franck and Max Born in the fields of physics and spectroscopy. Herzberg held academic positions at Darmstadt Technische Universität, University of Saskatchewan, University of Chicago, and the National Research Council of Canada and won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1971.
Ann B. Hill was raised in Sydney, Australia. She studied medicine at the University of New South Wales and interned at Sydney Hospital with a specialization in internal medicine. She continued to train in clinical immunology at St. Vincent's Hospital in Sydney, where she also set up an immunology clinic for AIDS patients. Wanting to combine clinical medicine and scientific research, Hill returned to the Australian National University for her doctoral degree, working in Arno Mullbacher's laboratory on immunodominance and cytotoxic T-cell response to flaviviruses. After winning the Oxford Nuffield Dominions Medical Fellowship she attended Oxford University, researching HLA-B51, cross-presentation, and immuno-evasion. A postdoc at Massachusetts Institute of Technology proved quite influential scientifically and Hill continues work on immune-evasion at Oregon Health Sciences University.
Michael W. Hill received a BS and MSc in chemistry and became head of Morgan Crucible Group's physics laboratory, but was drawn to the information and documentation side of the field. Hill first became assistant keeper in the National Reference Library of Science and Invention, and later moved on to the British Museum and the British Library.
Franz Hillenkamp was born in Essen, Germany. Having chosen the science and math track in the Gymnasium Hillenkamp went on to major in electrical engineering at Technische Universität München (TUM). He interrupted his diploma thesis on vacuum systems to accept a Fulbright Scholarship to Purdue University, where he obtained a master's degree. Returning to TUM he finished his thesis and married. Hillenkamp's first job was with the Federal Department of Science and Technology, where he taught himself lasers and worked with them for fourteen years. During this time he also got his PhD, writing his thesis on energy meters for Q-switch lasers. Hillenkamp met Raimund Kaufmann and the two began a long-lasting collaboration; eventually this collaboration led Hillenkamp and Michael Karas to the invention of, first, laser-induced microprobe mass analysis, or LAMMA; and then matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, or MALDI, which has been profoundly important in biology. Researching the safety of lasers led Hillenkamp to found a laser-tissue interaction laboratory; this lab became the prototype for the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital. Hillenkamp held a position at J. W. Goethe Universität in Frankfurt before moving to the University of Münster, where he became chair and Director of the Department of Medical Physics and Biophysics. At that time Münster was considered the center of mass spectrometry in Germany. Hillenkamp has also held visiting positions at Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Università degli Studi di Napoli, University of Maryland in Munich, and other places. He helped develop a submission for the Excellence Initiative before he retired.
Tatsuya Hirano was born in Chiba, Japan. He entered Kyoto University intending to study physics, but became interested in molecular biology. He was unaffected by his professors, finding undergraduate education self-directed, not instructor-led. As is common in Japan, Hirano remained at Kyoto for graduate school, working in Mitsuhiro Yanagida's laboratory on the genetics of chromosome structure in fission yeast. Knowing options were limited at home, Hirano went abroad for his postdoc. He chose to study with Timothy J. Mitchison-someone Hirano considered one of the brightest cell biologists of his age-at University of California, San Francisco, working on chromosome condensation and the condensin complex. From there, he accepted a position at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, where he continued his research on condensin and cohesion.
J. Roger Hirl studied liberal arts and business in college, but entered chemical industry due to a job for Skelly Oil Company. Hirl moved on to Olin Mathieson Chemical Company (later known as Olin Corporation), where he was notably active in litigation regarding DDT sediments and mercury emissions. In 1983, Hirl joined Occidental Chemical Corporation and became interested in environmental concerns, most notably including his involvement in the Love Canal situation.
Yasushi Hiromi was born in Kaizuka City, Japan. At the University of Tokyo he worked on Drosophila genetics in Yoshiki Hotta's lab and decided to study biology. He continued in Hotta's lab for graduate school. There he met Walter Gehring, later taking a postdoc in his lab. He discovered the ftz gene, leading to an interest in the central nervous system. He accepted a second postdoc in Corey Goodman's lab at Stanford and then UC Berkeley, where he worked with Chris Doe on the seven-up gene, which he took with him when he joined the faculty at Princeton University. Now, he looks forward to returning to Japan, where there is less emphasis on grant-writing, and he can exploit the joy he feels in solving problems.
Carrol A. Hochwalt studied at the University of Dayton, where he received a PhD in chemical engineering. After his university studies, Hochwalt got a position at Dayon Metal Products, where Hochwalt worked with Charles Kettering and Thomas Midgley, Jr., on lead tetraethyl and other antiknock compounds. Hochwalt moved on to Monsanto Company, where he oversaw research development.
Darleane Hoffman was born in Terril, Iowa. She graduated high school in 1944 as co-valedictorian of her class and decided to enter Iowa State College, Ames to study applied art; Prof. Nellie Naylor's required freshman chemistry class changed her mind. Hoffman found chemistry the most interesting, most logical, most useful" possible subject. During her senior year, she began undergraduate research with Prof. Don Martin at the newly completed Synchrotron, and continued research for her PhD there, receiving her degree in only three years. In 1952 Hoffman took a position at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. She was then promised a position in the Radiochemistry Division at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, New Mexico, but there was nothing in writing and Hoffmann encountered numerous roadblocks, including being told "We don't hire women in that Division" to having her Q-clearance lost. Finally, in March 1953 she managed to join Dr. Roderick Spence's Radiochemistry group. She published many papers on radiochemical separations and the discovery of Plutonium-244 in nature. During the years in Los Alamos she received a Guggenheim award to work in Berkeley with Glenn Seaborg and became the first woman technical division leader. In 1984 Hoffman was offered a tenured professorship in the Chemistry Department at UC Berkeley, the second woman full professor, and became Heavy Element Nuclear and Radiochemistry Group Leader at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Her group confirmed the discovery of element 106, enabling the discoverers to propose the name Seaborgium and she led the struggle with IUPAC to finally confirm it in 1997. She also co-founded the Seaborg Institutes for Transactinium Sciences at Livermore in 1996 and later at Berkeley and Los Alamos. Hoffman won the 1997 National Medal of Science and the Priestley Award in 2000.
J. Paul Hogan received a BS in chemistry and physics and first taught high school and undergraduate chemistry and physics, but spent most of his career with Phillips Petroleum Company. At Phillips, Hogan worked primarily with polymers and collaborated with Grant Bailey, Alfred Clark, and Robert L. Banks, with whom he discovered polypropylene.
Nancy M. Hollingsworth was born in San Francisco, California and attended Oregon State University. She began working in Peter Dawson's lab very early in her undergraduate career, doing crosses and measuring map distances between genes in Tribolium. A summer course at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts helped her decide to attend the University of Washington for doctoral studies. There, she worked in the lab of Breck E. Byers, ultimately developing a mutant screen for yeast recombination proteins and subsequently identifying the HOP1 mutant. After several postdocs, she accepted a position at the State University of New York, Stony Brook, researching the recombinant promoter gene MSH5 in yeast and the roles of the Mms4/Mus81complex and of Mek1 in recombination.
John L. Holmes was born in North London, United Kingdom. World War II disrupted his education, when his school was evacuated from London to the West Country, but by Christmas 1939 Holmes had returned to London. He remained in London for the duration of the war, and vividly recalls the London Blitz. After high school, Holmes became a trainee analytical chemist at Glaxo Laboratories;while working, he pursued his education part time at Acton Technical College, eventually passing the London External BSc examination in chemistry. During graduate studies at University College London he studied thermal decomposition of alkyl iodides under the mentorship of Allan Maccoll. After earning his PhD, Holmes fulfilled his National Service requirement at the National Coal Board then took up a postdoc in Ottawa at the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, doing photochemistry of trifluoromethyl radicals with aromatic substrates. After a frustrating two-year interlude at the University of Edinburgh, Holmes returned to Ottawa, accepting a position as assistant professor in the Chemistry Department at the University of Ottawa. He began work on the kinetics of hydrogen atom reactions, but soon found himself volunteering to take on a leadership role in the department’s nascent center for mass spectrometry. Throughout the interview, Holmes recounts his evolving research interests, his collaborations with Fred Lossing, Hans Terlouw and others, his teaching and mentoring work, as well as the changing funding climate in Canada, the growth of the University of Ottawa, his experiences at international scientific meetings, and his work as editor of Organic Mass Spectrometry. Holmes concludes the interview with a discussion of his passion for sailing.
Christine E. Holt was born in Wylam, England. She attended the University of Sussex, where she worked with John Maynard Smith and Michael F. Land, who encouraged her to undertake graduate studies. She received a Science Research Council fellowship and worked with John H. Scholes at the Medical Research Council (MRC) Cell Biophysics Unit, unifying her interests in genetics and neurobiology. William A. Harris introduced her to using an electrophysiological mapping system with Xenopus, after which she decided to undertake her postdoctoral studies with him at the University of California, San Diego. Her research focused on disproving the mechanospatial theory of brain development and contributing to the reaffirmation of Roger W. Sperry's chemoaffinity theory. She eventually earned a professorship at UCSD, where she remains.
Jeffrey T. Holt was born and raised in Battle Creek, Michigan. He attended Kalamazoo College in Michigan, intending to pursue both music and premed majors, though he ultimately gave up music. After completing medical school he went on to his residency at the Strong Memorial Hospital at the University of Rochester, before beginning postdoctoral work in the Arthur W. Nienhuis lab at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. He went on to a faculty position in the Departments of Cell Biology and of Pathology at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. Holt talks about the ways medical practice differs from research, applying insights in pathology to cancer research, and the difficulties in applying molecular biology cancer research in practice.
David P. Holveck begins his oral history by discussing his childhood in Philadelphia and his initial intent on becoming a physical therapist. After three years in the Navy, Holveck took a sales position at Blood Plasma and Components, and moved on to marketing, management, and executive positions at Abbott Laboratories, Corning Glass Works, General Electric Company, Centocor, and Johnson and Johnson. Holveck describes his involvement in the biotech industry, the evolution of X-ray technology, as well as the development of products such as Centoxin, Remicade, and ReoPro.
Richard E. Honig was born in Göttingen, Germany, the eldest of three boys. He attended Robert College, an American college in Istanbul, from which he graduated with a bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering. In 1938, Honig moved to the United States to pursue a PhD in Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Through a course in nuclear physics, he became interested in the nature of atoms, molecules and particularly isotopes, and eventually built his own mass spectrometer to study the effects of deuterium and cyclotron radiation on methane. His thesis on the nature of gas flow in that mass spectrometer was written under the direction of Clark Goodman. In 1946, Honig accepted a position at Socony-Vacuum Labs in Paulsboro, New Jersey, where he was able to continue the pursuit of his interest in the study of small hydrocarbon molecules with mass spectrometry. Honig joined the research staff at the Radio Corporation of America Laboratories in Princeton, New Jersey, in 1950, where he remained for the rest of his long career. His work began in Don North's group, studying materials used in hot cathodes. He designed and built a two-stage mass spectrometer, which led a few years later to the development of a secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS). He spent a year during the mid-1950's at the University of Brussels helping to start a mass spectrometry laboratory with Jean Drowart. Honig's career at RCA focused on materials characterization, particularly impurities in semiconductor materials, first with mass spectrometry and then later with a variety of surface analysis techniques when he became head of the newly formed Materials Characterization Research Group there in the mid-1960's. His long-time interest in cluster formation led to his measurement of elemental vapor pressures as a function of temperature and the evaluation of previously reported values for these quantities. Honig stepped down from his managerial position in 1982 and spent the next several years back in the laboratory helping to design and build a new mass spectrometer to study the organic materials on surfaces.
Masao Horbia begins his oral history by discussing his childhood, schooling, and life during World War II in Japan, where Horiba earned a BS in physics and established his own laboratory, Horiba Radio Laboratory (later incorporated as HORIBA, Ltd. ). Horiba's company built and improved upon a pH meter, among various other products, and, by the 1960s, began producing Hitachi, Ltd's analytical instrumentation, as well as a new analyzer for testing automobile emissions. HORIBA, Ltd. went public in 1971,and Horiba reflects on his still-thriving business and innovations in corporate management.
Jonathan M. Horowitz was born in Brooklyn, New York. By high school he had decided become a researcher in molecular biology, like Francis Crick. He attended a high school with no grades; he even designed his own courses. Hearing about its unstructured curriculum, he attended Brown University, but struggled to do well. For graduate school, Horowitz attended the University of Wisconsin, where he worked in Rex Risser's lab on mouse retroviruses. Shifting to oncogenes, he next joined Robert Weinberg's lab at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research. In collaboration with Edward Harlow, Horowitz discovered Rb is an E1A-binding protein and mapped the E1A- binding region on Rb. He is now at North Carolina State College of Veterinary Medicine, where he finds much support for his research.
Gökhan S. Hotamisligil was born in the town of Pazar, on the Northern cost of Turkey. Growing up in small towns, he learned much from his family intellectually, socially, and culturally in his early years. He then attended a public boarding school where curriculum was intense but his science classes did not offer much experimentation experience. After college he attended Ankara University for his medical degree, after which he served in Eastern Turkey as a public physician where his view of society and medicine begun to transform. Subsequently, he returned to Ankara University where he specialized in pediatrics and became interested in human genetics. His wife's scholarship to the Shriver Center for Mental Retardation gave him the opportunity to continue his medical training and work in Xandra O. Breakefield's laboratory at Harvard Medical School. During these years, he was fascinated by basic science and metabolism decided to undertake graduate research at Harvard on adipocyte metabolism, obesity and insulin resistance which shaped his future career. He set up his own lab at Harvard School of Public Health and built a program to explore the interactions between metabolism and immunity and how these interactions contribute to chronic metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. He discusses his early life story, the national scientific agenda, science and public policy, and his own current research.
Hoyt C. Hottel begins his interview by discussing his early education and interest in rubber chemistry, and how both factored in to his decision to attend Indiana University for chemistry and Massachusetts Institute of Technology for chemical engineering. Hottel discusses his substantial experience in World Warr II work on flamethrowers, incendiary bombs, and smoke obscuration and several jobs in industry, as well as his long tenure as a professor and director of the fuel and gas engineering program at MIT. Additionally, Hottel reflects on his extensive research on solar energy and gas turbine combustion.
Jonathon Howard was born in Sydney, Australia. Howard disliked school intensely-except for mathematics-often playing truant, until he transferred to International School, where he throve under the direction of William Eason. Howard went to Australian National University, obtaining his BSc in mathematics in 1979, then switched to physics and neurobiology for his PhD, which he received from Australian National University in 1983. He first took a postdoc at the University of Bristol in England, but soon moved to the University of California at San Francisco, where he worked in Albert James Hudspeth's lab. Howard became interested in vision and hearing, studying first photoreceptors and hair cells. He accepted an assistant professorship at the University of Washington, where he remains today.
Shi Huang was born in Dalian, China, during the Cultural Revolution. He remembers school being easy, and focused on memorizing political tracts, marching, and working in the fields. He went to Shanghai for college, where he studied genetic engineering and was selected to participate in the China-US Biochemistry Examination and Application program, a joint program between China and American professors. Huang studied English at the Guangzhou English Language Center, then joined John W. B. Hershey's laboratory at University of California, Davis; there he used a gel electrophoresis assay to study RNA protein interactions. After a postdoc at University of California, San Diego joined the Burnham Institute in La Jolla, California, where he continues his work on RIZ as a tumor suppressor gene.
Tim Hughes grew up in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, one of eight children; his father was a surgeon. Hughes took a degree in business from St. Francis University and started his own business. He now lives in Whitpain Township. Hughes first heard about the asbestos hazard when he bought a house in Ambler, and then became really aware of asbestos when a developer petitioned to build a seventeen-story high-rise on one of the unremediated piles. Hughes put together a flyer, and he and his wife distributed the flyers to residents of Ambler. Many people became concerned, and Citizens for a Better Ambler (CBA) was formed. The CBA paid for a feasibility study, and later the Borough Council vetoed the high-rise. The research persuaded the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to address the site. Hughes thinks Ambler is safe from asbestos right now, but points out that the proposed high-rise location has not changed
Willis Humphreys describes his long tenure as Production Supervisor with Beckman Instruments, Incorporated. Humphreys worked on the electronics for many of the company's instruments, including the Helipot and the Model R pH meter. Humphreys also reflects on the intense World War II production of new instruments and the evolution of electronics technology.
Catherine T. Hunt grew up in Bronxville, New York, one of seven children. Her father was a chemist at Allied Chemical Company, and Katie often went to work with him and always had questions for him about why things are the way they are. A good chemistry teacher in high school only strengthened her determination to be a chemist. To that end she entered Smith College. During her summers she worked at Stauffer Chemical Company. She realized she needed a PhD, so she applied to the University of California system, choosing Davis. There she worked with Alan Balch and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Hunt accepted a National Institutes of Health postdoctoral fellowship at Yale University, studying with Drs. Ian Armitage, Robert Shulman, and James Prestegard. When she began to interview for jobs she found Linda Benner and several others from Davis at Rohm and Haas; she also found a friendly and supportive atmosphere there, and took the job. She later became a process chemist and then lab manager of the Bridesburg plant. When downsized from Rohm and Haas in 1995 she moved back to Spring House in Analytical Research, ultimately becoming the director of the Analytical and Computational Competency Network. Persuaded to run for president of American Chemical Society (ACS), Hunt developed a platform emphasizing education in science, including legislators, the media, the public, and the next generation. After her year in office, Hunt returned to Rohm and Haas as the first Corporate Sustainability Director, as well as resuming her former role in Technology Partnerships. When Dow acquired Rohm and Haas on April 1, 2009, Hunt move into an expanded role in their External Technologies Group (ET); soon to be renamed: Innovation Sourcing and Sustainable Technologies.
Charles Hurd begins his oral history by discussing his early life and his later educational and professional experiences, including his PhD work in organic chemistry at Princeton University and his summer job in Thomas Edison's laboratory. Hurd was recruited to Northwestern University by Frank Whitmore and remained there for his entire career, while consulting for various companies. Hurd reflects on his research, teaching and creation of Molecular Models as a teaching tool, and the negative public perception of chemical industry.
J. Franklin Hyde discusses his university studies in chemistry, which culminated in a PhD in organic chemistry with Roger Adams and a postdoctoral at Harvard University. Hyde accepted a position at Corning Glass Works as a research chemist and later became the manager of the organic laboratory. Hyde later joined Dow Corning Corporation, where he continued management and research on equilibrium hydrolysis and bond rearrangement in siloxanes.
James D. Idol discusses his early interest in chemistry and decision to pursue chemistry in higher education, which led to a position with Standard Oil of Ohio. Idol pioneered an economically advantageous process for the production of acrylonitrile and played a role in the commercialization of the process. Idol moved on to Ashland Chemical Company, where he developed the propylene-CO process for methyl methacrylate, and in 1988 became a professor at Rutgers University.
Enrique Iglesia was born in Havana, Cuba; his family then moved to Mexico, where they lived for six months while awaiting papers to enter the United States. Iglesia matriculated at Princeton University intending to major in chemical engineering; he had summer internships at Exxon, after which he became interested in catalysis. He chose Stanford for his PhD and began research in Michel Boudart's group, working on the applicability of model systems to real-world catalysis. After he completed his degree, he accepted a job offer from Exxon and soon advanced to the position of section head, supervising about fifty scientists and support staff. Ready to return to academia he accepted University of California, Berkeley's offer; he also became a consultant to Catalytic Associates. Iglesia participated in a BP-organized collaboration of scientists from Caltech and Berkeley, called Methane Conversion Cooperative, which lasted ten years. Since then he has started a new, smaller, group, the X Conversion Cooperative, which has reached its fifth year. In recent years, Iglesia's group has been working on Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, as well as other reactions of C 1 molecules, such as carbonylation and tripane synthesis. In addition, Chevron Corporation has been funding research into zeolites, which the Cooperative has learned to form around a precursor and van der Waals interactions and he has been co-editor in chief of the Journal of Catalysis.
Kazuo Inamori was born in 1932 in Kagoshima, Japan, one of seven children. During elementary school, he was a very spirited child who loved science and also showed an interest in the machines that were in his father's printing shop. He enrolled at Kagoshima University, where he majored in organic chemistry. After graduating, he worked at at Shofu Industries, where he developed fosterite to serve as an insulator for high frequency radio waves and invented the electric tunnel kiln. In 1959, together with seven other colleagues, Inamori established Kyoto Ceramic, which later became known as Kyocera. Inamori quickly secured a contract from Matsushita Electronics Industries (now Panasonic), and then with Fairchild Semiconductor, which placed orders for silicon transistor headers. Kyocera greatly contributed to the development of the US semiconductor industry. To avoid dependence on the semiconductor market, Inamori diversified Kyocera, turning to the manufacture of photovoltaic cells, cutting tools, and bioceramics; later, he moved Kyocera into other areas-especially the manufacture of electronic information equipment, e. g. laptops, peripheral equipment, and telecommunications equipment. Inamori established DDI Corporation (Daini Denden) to compete against NTT (Nippon Telegraph & Telephone Corporation). In 2000 DDI merged with KDD (Kokusai Denshin Denwa) and IDO (Nippn Idou Tsushin Corporation, which had been started by Toyota), to form KDDI, which today is the second largest comprehensive telecommunications company in Japan. In 1984 Inamori also established the Inamori Foundation, which awards the annual Kyoto Prize, honoring those who have made extraordinary contributions to science, civilization, and the spirituality of humankind.
Madeleine Jacobs grew up in Washington, DC, the younger of two children. Her father was a musician, her mother a secretary. The television program Watch Mr. Wizard convinced her she wanted to be a scientist, in particular a chemist. She matriculated into George Washington University with a full scholarship. After college, Jacobs began a master's program at the University of Maryland, but quit after a year. She had always loved writing and wrote extremely well, so she applied for a job with Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN). After a short stint as a writer at National Institutes of Health, she spent five years as a science writer, and then became head of media relations and publications at the National Bureau of Standards. From that position, Jacobs' career took her to the Smithsonian Institution's Office of Public Affairs, beginning as science writer and ending as its Director. After fourteen years at the Smithsonian, Jacobs returned to C&EN to become managing editor. After one and a half years, she became editor-in-chief, a title she held for eight and a half additional years. At C&EN , she reawakened her interest in women in chemistry. She initiated "The Scorecard" to document the progress of women on chemistry faculties. Finding this scorecard effective in making faculties sit up and take notice on the disparity between the number of male and female professors, she began a scorecard for industry. After ten years at C&EN, Jacobs became the first woman and first person without a PhD to become Chief Executive Officer of the American Chemical Society, the position she holds today.
Theodore S. Jardetzky was raised in Boston, Massachusetts. Both of his parents were scientists, his father later a faculty member at Stanford. In addition to music, he also had a longtime interest in mathematics and science, and had influential teachers in chemistry and biology. Jardetzky matriculated at Stanford University in order to explore both science and the humanities. He worked in his father's lab, researched the structure of the acetylcholine receptor, and met Kasper Kirschner, with whom Jardetzky decided to work at University of Basel, Switzerland, for his graduate studies. There, Jardetzky looked at the kinetics and equilibrium binding of enzyme reactions. He is now at Northwestern University, where he researches structure of membrane proteins, properties of protein structure, and organization of cellular structures.
Gail P. Jarvik was raised in Mount Prospect, Illinois. She had an early interest in nature, reading, and math, and several influential teachers. She matriculated at the University of Iowa, majoring in zoology. She began her medical training at Iowa, but James Hanson, the head of pediatric genetics, encouraged her to pursue her PhD at University of Michigan. There, Jarvik worked on fetal hydantoin syndrome. Next, she went to University of Pennsylvania where she collaborated with Terri Beaty from Johns Hopkins University on hyperlipidemia. She then took a postdoc at University of Washington, under Ellen M. Wijsman, and went on to accept a position at the University of Washington Medical Center. She discusses public awareness of genetic research, ethical questions, advantages of competition, and more.
Steven D. Jellinek received a bachelor’s degree in political science from the University of Rochester and a master’s degree in public affairs from Syracuse University. After several years at the Internal Revenue, he became the first Assistant Administrator for Toxic Substances at the US Environmental Protection Agency, and soon the Assistant Administrator for Pesticides and Toxic Substances. TSCA was written with many procedural hurdles and there were many challenges in implementing the new law: no inventory rule and no classificatory system for chemicals; interagency politics that had to be negotiated; little statutorial guidance for prioritizing exiting chemicals, or even defining a chemical of concern; and no technologies of risk assessment or toxicity testing. Jellinek inherited what was considered an inefficient organizational structure in the Office of Toxic Substances. The premanufacturing review process was one of the few immediate successes; industry seemed to really internalize the goal of safer new chemicals.