Browse Oral Histories Alphabetically

Masao Horiba begins his oral history by discussing his childhood, schooling, and life during World War II in Japan, where Horiba earned a BS in physics and established his own laboratory, Horiba Radio Laboratory (later incorporated as HORIBA, Ltd. ). Horiba's company built and improved upon a pH meter, among various other products, and, by the 1960s, began producing Hitachi, Ltd's analytical instrumentation, as well as a new analyzer for testing automobile emissions. HORIBA, Ltd. went public in 1971, and Horiba reflects on his still-thriving business and innovations in corporate management.

Jonathan M. Horowitz was born in Brooklyn, New York. By high school he had decided become a researcher in molecular biology, like Francis Crick. He attended a high school with no grades; he even designed his own courses. Hearing about its unstructured curriculum, he attended Brown University, but struggled to do well. For graduate school, Horowitz attended the University of Wisconsin, where he worked in Rex Risser's lab on mouse retroviruses. Shifting to oncogenes, he next joined Robert Weinberg's lab at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research. In collaboration with Edward Harlow, Horowitz discovered Rb is an E1A-binding protein and mapped the E1A- binding region on Rb. He is now at North Carolina State College of Veterinary Medicine, where he finds much support for his research.

For more information on Jay Horton, please visit the Pew Scholars in the Biomedical Sciences.

For more information on this oral history, please contact the Director of the Center for Oral History. 

Gökhan S. Hotamisligil was born in the town of Pazar, on the Northern cost of Turkey. Growing up in small towns, he learned much from his family intellectually, socially, and culturally in his early years. He then attended a public boarding school where curriculum was intense but his science classes did not offer much experimentation experience. After college he attended Ankara University for his medical degree, after which he served in Eastern Turkey as a public physician where his view of society and medicine begun to transform. Subsequently, he returned to Ankara University where he specialized in pediatrics and became interested in human genetics. His wife's scholarship to the Shriver Center for Mental Retardation gave him the opportunity to continue his medical training and work in Xandra O. Breakefield's laboratory at Harvard Medical School. During these years, he was fascinated by basic science and metabolism decided to undertake graduate research at Harvard on adipocyte metabolism, obesity and insulin resistance which shaped his future career. He set up his own lab at Harvard School of Public Health and built a program to explore the interactions between metabolism and immunity and how these interactions contribute to chronic metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. He discusses his early life story, the national scientific agenda, science and public policy, and his own current research.

Hoyt C. Hottel begins his interview by discussing his early education and interest in rubber chemistry, and how both factored in to his decision to attend Indiana University for chemistry and Massachusetts Institute of Technology for chemical engineering. Hottel discusses his substantial experience in World War II work on flamethrowers, incendiary bombs, and smoke obscuration and several jobs in industry, as well as his long tenure as a professor and director of the fuel and gas engineering program at MIT. Additionally, Hottel reflects on his extensive research on solar energy and gas turbine combustion.

Jonathon Howard was born in Sydney, Australia. Howard disliked school intensely-except for mathematics-often playing truant, until he transferred to International School, where he throve under the direction of William Eason. Howard went to Australian National University, obtaining his BSc in mathematics in 1979, then switched to physics and neurobiology for his PhD, which he received from Australian National University in 1983. He first took a postdoc at the University of Bristol in England, but soon moved to the University of California at San Francisco, where he worked in Albert James Hudspeth's lab. Howard became interested in vision and hearing, studying first photoreceptors and hair cells. He accepted an assistant professorship at the University of Washington, where he remains today.

Shi Huang was born in Dalian, China, during the Cultural Revolution. He remembers school being easy, and focused on memorizing political tracts, marching, and working in the fields. He went to Shanghai for college, where he studied genetic engineering and was selected to participate in the China-US Biochemistry Examination and Application program, a joint program between China and American professors. Huang studied English at the Guangzhou English Language Center, then joined John W. B. Hershey's laboratory at University of California, Davis; there he used a gel electrophoresis assay to study RNA protein interactions. After a postdoc at University of California, San Diego joined the Burnham Institute in La Jolla, California, where he continues his work on RIZ as a tumor suppressor gene.

For more information on Z. Josh Huang, please visit the Pew Scholars in the Biomedical Sciences.

For more information on this oral history, please contact the Director of the Center for Oral History. 

Tim Hughes grew up in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, one of eight children; his father was a surgeon. Hughes took a degree in business from St. Francis University and started his own business. He now lives in Whitpain Township. Hughes first heard about the asbestos hazard when he bought a house in Ambler, and then became really aware of asbestos when a developer petitioned to build a seventeen-story high-rise on one of the unremediated piles. Hughes put together a flyer, and he and his wife distributed the flyers to residents of Ambler. Many people became concerned, and Citizens for a Better Ambler (CBA) was formed. The CBA paid for a feasibility study, and later the Borough Council vetoed the high-rise. The research persuaded the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to address the site. Hughes thinks Ambler is safe from asbestos right now, but points out that the proposed high-rise location has not changed

Willis Humphreys describes his long tenure as Production Supervisor with Beckman Instruments, Incorporated. Humphreys worked on the electronics for many of the company's instruments, including the Helipot and the Model R pH meter. Humphreys also reflects on the intense World War II production of new instruments and the evolution of electronics technology.

Catherine T. Hunt grew up in Bronxville, New York, one of seven children. Her father was a chemist at Allied Chemical Company, and Katie often went to work with him and always had questions for him about why things are the way they are. A good chemistry teacher in high school only strengthened her determination to be a chemist. To that end she entered Smith College. During her summers she worked at Stauffer Chemical Company. She realized she needed a PhD, so she applied to the University of California system, choosing Davis. There she worked with Alan Balch and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Hunt accepted a National Institutes of Health postdoctoral fellowship at Yale University, studying with Drs. Ian Armitage, Robert Shulman, and James Prestegard. When she began to interview for jobs she found Linda Benner and several others from Davis at Rohm and Haas; she also found a friendly and supportive atmosphere there, and took the job. She later became a process chemist and then lab manager of the Bridesburg plant. When downsized from Rohm and Haas in 1995 she moved back to Spring House in Analytical Research, ultimately becoming the director of the Analytical and Computational Competency Network. Persuaded to run for president of American Chemical Society (ACS), Hunt developed a platform emphasizing education in science, including legislators, the media, the public, and the next generation. After her year in office, Hunt returned to Rohm and Haas as the first Corporate Sustainability Director, as well as resuming her former role in Technology Partnerships. When Dow acquired Rohm and Haas on April 1, 2009, Hunt move into an expanded role in their External Technologies Group (ET); soon to be renamed: Innovation Sourcing and Sustainable Technologies.

Charles Hurd begins his oral history by discussing his early life and his later educational and professional experiences, including his PhD work in organic chemistry at Princeton University and his summer job in Thomas Edison's laboratory. Hurd was recruited to Northwestern University by Frank Whitmore and remained there for his entire career, while consulting for various companies. Hurd reflects on his research, teaching and creation of Molecular Models as a teaching tool, and the negative public perception of chemical industry.

J. Franklin Hyde discusses his university studies in chemistry, which culminated in a PhD in organic chemistry with Roger Adams and a postdoctoral at Harvard University. Hyde accepted a position at Corning Glass Works as a research chemist and later became the manager of the organic laboratory. Hyde later joined Dow Corning Corporation, where he continued management and research on equilibrium hydrolysis and bond rearrangement in siloxanes.

James D. Idol discusses his early interest in chemistry and decision to pursue chemistry in higher education, which led to a position with Standard Oil of Ohio. Idol pioneered an economically advantageous process for the production of acrylonitrile and played a role in the commercialization of the process. Idol moved on to Ashland Chemical Company, where he developed the propylene-CO process for methyl methacrylate, and in 1988 became a professor at Rutgers University.

Enrique Iglesia was born in Havana, Cuba; his family then moved to Mexico, where they lived for six months while awaiting papers to enter the United States. Iglesia matriculated at Princeton University intending to major in chemical engineering; he had summer internships at Exxon, after which he became interested in catalysis. He chose Stanford for his PhD and began research in Michel Boudart's group, working on the applicability of model systems to real-world catalysis. After he completed his degree, he accepted a job offer from Exxon and soon advanced to the position of section head, supervising about fifty scientists and support staff. Ready to return to academia he accepted University of California, Berkeley's offer; he also became a consultant to Catalytic Associates. Iglesia participated in a BP-organized collaboration of scientists from Caltech and Berkeley, called Methane Conversion Cooperative, which lasted ten years. Since then he has started a new, smaller, group, the X Conversion Cooperative, which has reached its fifth year. In recent years, Iglesia's group has been working on Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, as well as other reactions of C 1 molecules, such as carbonylation and tripane synthesis. In addition, Chevron Corporation has been funding research into zeolites, which the Cooperative has learned to form around a precursor and van der Waals interactions and he has been co-editor in chief of the Journal of Catalysis.

Kazuo Inamori was born in 1932 in Kagoshima, Japan, one of seven children. During elementary school, he was a very spirited child who loved science and also showed an interest in the machines that were in his father's printing shop. He enrolled at Kagoshima University, where he majored in organic chemistry. After graduating, he worked at at Shofu Industries, where he developed fosterite to serve as an insulator for high frequency radio waves and invented the electric tunnel kiln. In 1959, together with seven other colleagues, Inamori established Kyoto Ceramic, which later became known as Kyocera. Inamori quickly secured a contract from Matsushita Electronics Industries (now Panasonic), and then with Fairchild Semiconductor, which placed orders for silicon transistor headers. Kyocera greatly contributed to the development of the US semiconductor industry. To avoid dependence on the semiconductor market, Inamori diversified Kyocera, turning to the manufacture of photovoltaic cells, cutting tools, and bioceramics; later, he moved Kyocera into other areas-especially the manufacture of electronic information equipment, e. g. laptops, peripheral equipment, and telecommunications equipment. Inamori established DDI Corporation (Daini Denden) to compete against NTT (Nippon Telegraph & Telephone Corporation). In 2000 DDI merged with KDD (Kokusai Denshin Denwa) and IDO (Nippn Idou Tsushin Corporation, which had been started by Toyota), to form KDDI, which today is the second largest comprehensive telecommunications company in Japan. In 1984 Inamori also established the Inamori Foundation, which awards the annual Kyoto Prize, honoring those who have made extraordinary contributions to science, civilization, and the spirituality of humankind.

Madeleine Jacobs grew up in Washington, DC, the younger of two children. Her father was a musician, her mother a secretary. The television program Watch Mr. Wizard convinced her she wanted to be a scientist, in particular a chemist. She matriculated into George Washington University with a full scholarship. After college, Jacobs began a master's program at the University of Maryland, but quit after a year. She had always loved writing and wrote extremely well, so she applied for a job with Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN). After a short stint as a writer at National Institutes of Health, she spent five years as a science writer, and then became head of media relations and publications at the National Bureau of Standards. From that position, Jacobs' career took her to the Smithsonian Institution's Office of Public Affairs, beginning as science writer and ending as its Director. After fourteen years at the Smithsonian, Jacobs returned to C&EN  to become managing editor. After one and a half years, she became editor-in-chief, a title she held for eight and a half additional years. At C&EN , she reawakened her interest in women in chemistry. She initiated "The Scorecard" to document the progress of women on chemistry faculties. Finding this scorecard effective in making faculties sit up and take notice on the disparity between the number of male and female professors, she began a scorecard for industry. After ten years at C&EN, Jacobs became the first woman and first person without a PhD to become Chief Executive Officer of the American Chemical Society, the position she holds today.

Tykee James was born on January 21, 1994, at Temple Hospital in North Philadelphia. He soon moved with his parents to the Fort Irwin Army Base in the High Mojave Desert of California. In 2000, after his parents’ separation, he moved with his mother and brothers to Racine, Wisconsin, where Tykee began Latin dancing. In 2009 his family then moved to northwestern Texas. In Texas, Tykee played football, competed regionally with a Latin dance team, and argued on the debate team. In 2011, just before his senior year of high school, he returned with his family to Philadelphia. On arriving in West Philadelphia, Tykee suffered a severe asthma attack that forced his hospitalization and ignited his concern for clean air. On recovery Tykee attended Motivation High School and, as a subcontractor with the Philadelphia Water Department, became a public educator and naturalist with Cobbs Creek Environmental Center. Now a student at Temple University, Tykee is pursuing a degree in communications with a focus on rhetoric and public advocacy. He also works as a legislative aid to the Honorable Donna Bullock, who represents Philadelphia’s 195th District in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives.

Theodore S. Jardetzky was raised in Boston, Massachusetts. Both of his parents were scientists, his father later a faculty member at Stanford. In addition to music, he also had a longtime interest in mathematics and science, and had influential teachers in chemistry and biology. Jardetzky matriculated at Stanford University in order to explore both science and the humanities. He worked in his father's lab, researched the structure of the acetylcholine receptor, and met Kasper Kirschner, with whom Jardetzky decided to work at University of Basel, Switzerland, for his graduate studies. There, Jardetzky looked at the kinetics and equilibrium binding of enzyme reactions. He is now at Northwestern University, where he researches structure of membrane proteins, properties of protein structure, and organization of cellular structures.

Gail P. Jarvik was raised in Mount Prospect, Illinois. She had an early interest in nature, reading, and math, and several influential teachers. She matriculated at the University of Iowa, majoring in zoology. She began her medical training at Iowa, but James Hanson, the head of pediatric genetics, encouraged her to pursue her PhD at University of Michigan. There, Jarvik worked on fetal hydantoin syndrome. Next, she went to University of Pennsylvania where she collaborated with Terri Beaty from Johns Hopkins University on hyperlipidemia. She then took a postdoc at University of Washington, under Ellen M. Wijsman, and went on to accept a position at the University of Washington Medical Center. She discusses public awareness of genetic research, ethical questions, advantages of competition, and more.

Steven D. Jellinek received a bachelor’s degree in political science from the University of Rochester and a master’s degree in public affairs from Syracuse University. After several years at the Internal Revenue, he became the first Assistant Administrator for Toxic Substances at the US Environmental Protection Agency, and soon the Assistant Administrator for Pesticides and Toxic Substances. TSCA was written with many procedural hurdles and there were many challenges in implementing the new law: no inventory rule and no classificatory system for chemicals; interagency politics that had to be negotiated; little statutorial guidance for prioritizing exiting chemicals, or even defining a chemical of concern; and no technologies of risk assessment or toxicity testing. Jellinek inherited what was considered an inefficient organizational structure in the Office of Toxic Substances. The premanufacturing review process was one of the few immediate successes; industry seemed to really internalize the goal of safer new chemicals. 

For more information on Marc Jenkins, please visit the Pew Scholars in the Biomedical Sciences.

Fore more information on this oral history, please contact the Director of the Center for Oral History. 

Robert T. "Ted" Jenkins begins his oral history by discussing his early life and his years at California Institute of Technology, where he earned bachelor's and master's degrees. Jenkins was recruited by Gordon Moore to work for Fairchild Semiconductor and left a short time later to follow Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce to Noyce-Moore Electronics, later called Intel. Jenkins reflects on his lengthy career at Intel and his work on blue LED, early microprocessor chips, and other products.

Keith R. Jennings begins his oral history by discussing his youth and education in the United Kingdom, including his chemistry studies at University of Oxford, where he worked with Jack Wilfrid Linnett, and his postdoctoral position with Robert Cevetanovic at the National Research Council in Ottawa, Canada. Jennings took a position at the University of Sheffield and moved on to the University of Warwick. Jennings reflects on his lengthy career at the University of Warwick, his research on mass spectrometry and the field of mass spectrometry in general, and his notable collaborators and peers.

Stephen L. Johnson was raised in Nashville, Tennessee. While studying writing at Vanderbilt University, he worked in Lee Limbird's pharmacology lab, though he was still unsure if science suited him. Ultimately he decided to pursue science and joined the genetics department at University of Washington, where he worked under Breck Byers on fusing Cdc4 and LAC-Z genes in yeast. He was also mentored by Leland H. Hartwell. Upon finishing graduate studies, Johnson worked on zebrafish with James A. Weston and Charles A. Kimmel at University of Oregon, researching tissue regeneration mutants, pigment patterns, isometric growth, and genetic mapping. He also developed inbred strains and centromere markers for mapping the zebrafish genome. Johnson then accepted a position at Washington University School of Medicine to continue his work.

John W. Johnstone begins his oral history with a discussion of his early life and education, including a bachelor's degree in chemistry and physics from Hartwick College. Johnstone began his career at Hooker Chemical Company as a sales representative, but quickly moved up the ranks and became Group Vice President before leaving the company for Airco Inc. Johnstone joined Olin Corporation in 1979, where he worked for successful re-engineering and expansion of the company and addressed rising environmental concerns; Johnstone concludes the interview by discussing the future of research and development in the chemical industry.

Jean C. Jones discusses how she began working at Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation and her early interactions with Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce. Jones became full-time secretary for Fairchild and made the move to Intel Corporation. Jones describes her daily work at Fairchild and Intel and her interactions with Moore, Noyce, and Andrew Grove, among others.

For more information on Katherine Jones, please visit the Pew Scholars in the Biomedical Sciences

For more information on this oral history, please contact the Director of the Center for Oral History. 

R. Victor Jones matriculated into the University of California, Berkeley and entered the lab of Walter Knight, where he worked in the new field of nuclear magnetic resonance. He continued into graduate school at Berkeley and worked in Carson Jeffries's lab, where his thesis work dealt with electron transport in a molecular afterglow. As he was finishing his thesis work, William Shockley began an aggressive recruitment of Jones until he finally accepted Shockley's offer of a job at the new Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory. Shockley believed semiconductors were the wave of the future, and he espoused diffused-base technology. Jones was put to work on the four-layer diode. From the outset, lab work was compartmentalized and Shockley frequently changed the goals of the lab. Uncomfortable in the high-stress atmosphere of the lab and wanting to work with his primary interest, electromagnetic theory, Jones decided after only two years to look for work in the academy, ultimately acceptaing a position at Harvard University. He spent almost fifty years there, teaching electronics.

Madeleine M. Joullié begins her interview by describing her early life and education in Brazil followed by her higher education in the United States, with a bachelor's degree at Simmons College and master's and doctoral degrees in chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania, where she was advised by Allan R. Day. Joullié discusses her career in the organic chemistry department at the University of Pennsylvania, including her thoughts on teaching, her students, and her work with Mildred Cohn to implement affirmative action guidelines that led to more hiring of women and minorities to tenure-track positions at Penn. Additionally, Joullié discusses her consulting work, her research, and chemistry textbooks, including Organic Chemistry , which Joullié co-authored with Day.

William H. Joyce discusses his interest in chemistry, which led to a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering from Pennsylvania State University, and the influence of his parents, which led to interest in business and an MBA and PhD from New York University. Joyce had a lengthy career at Union Carbide, where he rose from Product Development Engineer to Chairman and Chief Executive Officer and made several contributions to the field, including the UNIPOL process for creating high-density polyethylene. Joyce reflects on the chemical industry, his philosophy to being successful in a large corporation, and his work for the Nalco Company.

David J. Julius was born and grew up in Brooklyn, New York. He was interested early in the sciences, although he did not particularly enjoy school. He attended Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he received his BS in 1977. He then obtained his PhD from University of California at Berkeley in 1984. He was a postdoctoral fellow at the Institute of Cancer Research at Columbia University, then an associate at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. In 1989 he became assistant professor at the University of California, San Francisco, where he remains. Julius's major areas of interest include yeast genetics, the secretory pathway, Xenopus and Aplysia, neurobiology, electrophysiology, mouse genetics, and the serotonin receptor.

For more information on Daniel Kalderon, please visit the Pew Scholars in the Biomedical Sciences.

For more information on this oral history, please contact the Director of the Center for Oral History. 

Mark P. Kamps grew up in New Jersey, where religion was important to family life, which taught him that science and religion can coexist. Interested in both chemistry and biology, he double-majored at Calvin College. At University of California, San Diego, he became interested in Bartholomew Sefton's work in avian retroviruses and worked in his lab. Kamps talks about his love of bench work, his relationship with Sefton, the need for students to design experiments, and ethics in science. Kamps accepted a postdoc in David Baltimore's lab at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, then took a position at UCSD. He discusses his discovery of E2A-Pbx1, and how it furthered his career, funding, ideal research environments, gender issues, students in the lab, and the importance of advancing science literacy.

Jean S. Kane was the first in her family to attend college. She began at Keuka College, intending to get a nursing degree, but she discovered chemistry and changed her major. She entered Mount Holyoke College and obtained a master’s degree in chemistry. Kane got a job at RCA, working on potassium tantalum niobate and solid-state crystals. After moving with her family to Virginia, Kane worked for the United States Geological Survey in the Branch of Analytical Chemistry, working on atomic absorption spectrometry and publishing about method development research. Kane took over the Geochemical Reference Sample Program at USGS, which attempted to categorize and standardize geological samples according to their chemical composition. Kane was recruited to the Standard Reference Materials Program at National Institute of Standards and Testing. She managed the certification of reference materials and standardized the certified values. Upon retirement, Kane remained on the editorial board of Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, taking an active role in the leadership of the International Association of Geoanalysts. Kane’s contribution of greater precision in analysis and standardization of methods is widely acknowledged.

Joshua M. Kaplan was born in Boston, Massachusetts. He grew up in an academic family, and in high school began his first research experience with his father, studying in vitro red blood cell development. Kaplan studied biochemistry at Yale University, working in Charles A. Janeway's lab. At the University of California, San Francisco, he researched cancer-associated src protein with J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus, and earned his PhD After a postdoc at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, an environment he found difficult but instructive, and a brief stay at Harvard, Kaplan became assistant professor at University of California, Berkeley. His current research focuses on mapping signal transduction in the simple nervous system of C. elegans, in an effort to understand the workings of more complex nervous systems.

Roger E. Karess cannot remember not being interested in science. He attended Yale University and Rockefeller University. After working in various research labs, Karess accepted a position as a principal investigator at the Centre de Génétique Moléculaire (CGM). He describes funding in France; the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and setting up a lab at CNRS; and his own funding. He later accepted positions in the Gerald Rubin lab at the Carnegie Institution of Washington, then a position in David Glover's lab at Imperial College of Science and Technology. Karess then applied for his first academic position at New York University, where he studied Leishmania. Karess moved his lab to the CGM in Paris, where he has been studying the rough-deal gene.

Isabella and Jerome Karle met while both were pursuing doctorates in physical chemistry under Professor Lawrence Brockway at the University of Michigan. After earning their degrees (and marrying), they worked on the Manhattan Project at the University of Chicago’s Metallurgical Laboratory. After a brief return to the University of Michigan, the Karle’s moved to the United States Naval Research Laboratory, where they focused on the development of X-ray crystallography. They worked together to develop a direct method for determining crystal structures, work for which Jerome Karle, with their colleague Herbert Hauptman, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1985. Over the course of three interview sessions, the Karles discuss their childhoods, early education, undergraduate and graduate work, careers and collaborations.

Isabella and Jerome Karle met while both were pursuing doctorates in physical chemistry under Professor Lawrence Brockway at the University of Michigan. After earning their degrees (and marrying), they worked on the Manhattan Project at the University of Chicago’s Metallurgical Laboratory. After a brief return to the University of Michigan, the Karle’s moved to the United States Naval Research Laboratory, where they focused on the development of X-ray crystallography. They worked together to develop a direct method for determining crystal structures, work for which Jerome Karle, with their colleague Herbert Hauptman, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1985. Over the course of three interview sessions, the Karles discuss their childhoods, early education, undergraduate and graduate work, careers and collaborations.

Frederick J. Karol discusses his early interest in chemistry, as well as his BSS in chemistry at Boston University and his two years of military service. Karol joined Union Carbide Corporation in 1956 , rising in the ranks to Senior Corporate Fellow, the position he holds presently; Karol took a brief hiatus to pursue a PhD in organic chemistry at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Karol discusses his lengthy career at Union Carbide, including the development of the gas phase process for making high pressure polyethylene replacement products, linear low density polyethylene development, among other research developments, as well as Union Carbide's history and professional philosophies.

Gary Karpen was born in New York City. In junior high Karpen had an excellent biology teacher who fired his interest in that subject. Because Brandeis was strong in pre-med, he decided to apply for early acceptance. Soon, he decided to become a researcher, inspired by his childhood love of tinkering and solving puzzles. He next spent three years as a technician in Gerold Schubiger's lab at the University of Washington before crossing the bridge to the genetics department for graduate school. There, he worked in Larry Sandler's and Charles Laird's labs, transforming ribosomal genes into flies. After his postdoc at the Carnegie Institute of Washington, Karpen joined the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California, where he has his own lab and teaches the occasional course. 

Martin Karplus was born in Vienna, Austria. During the Nazi occupation of Austria, the family moved first to Switzerland, then to Massachusetts. An early experiment using a microscope to study rotifers in drain water began his lifelong interest in observing nature. Karplus entered Harvard University to study physics and chemistry. For graduate school Karplus worked with Linus Pauling at Caltech. From California he went to Charles Coulson’s lab at the University of Oxford. His first faculty position was at University of Illinois, where he developed the Karplus equation. Karplus then went to Columbia’s IBM Watson Laboratory, where he and Richard Porter developed the Porter-Karplus surface. He took a position at Harvard and began the CHARMM program to study molecular dynamics simulations. He, Michael Levitt, and Arieh Warshel were awarded the Nobel Prize for the development of multiscale modeling for complex chemical systems. In his interview Karplus discusses his ability to visualize things; his love of birds; his gift for photography; his appreciation of European culture; and his extensive academic career. He says some of his work did not advance science until later; that it is important to avoid dead ends, that understanding the essential elements of a problem is crucial. He shares memories of the Nobel Prize ceremony and reception, as well as the impact the Prize has had on opportunities for himself and for others.

Donald L. Katz discusses his family background and his educational background, including his studies in chemical engineering at University of Michigan, which culminated in a PhD. While Katz initially joined Phillips Petroleum Company as a research engineer after his education, he was soon invited back to the University of Michigan for an academic appointment. Katz remained at Michigan for over fifty years, and he reflects on his research, including heat transfer investigations, and various aspects of chemical engineering education and the academic chemical engineering profession.

Raphael Katzen discusses his family and educational background, including his bachelor's degree in chemical engineering from Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. Katzen met Donald Othmer while an undergraduate, and Othmer was a significant mentor for Katzen, providing him with summer employment, taking him on off-campus consultations, and requesting permission for Katzen to obtain his master's degree in absentia while working at Northwood Chemical Company. Katzen also discusses his work on acid hydrolysis of wood in the production of ethanol, the creation of his own company, KATZEN International, Inc. , and his consulting and collaborative work.

Wilbur I. Kaye begins his interview by discussing his early interest in science and instrumentation and his education, which culminated in a PhD in chemistry at the University of Illinois. Kaye took a position at Tennessee Eastman Company after graduation and promptly set up a physics laboratory; Kaye discusses the instrumentation in his laboratory and his publications on gas chromatography. Kaye left Tennessee Eastman for Beckman Instruments, Inc., and reflects on his modifications to the DU spectrophotometer and other instrumentation at Beckman Instruments.

Paul Kebarle was born in Bulgaria. Kebarle escaped to Czechoslovakia during World War II, thence to Switzerland, where he studied at ETH as a major in chemical engineering. Kebarle then became a lab research assistant at University of British Columbia, where he obtained his PhD in chemistry under Allen Bryce, studying mass spectrometry.   Two years of postdoctoral work with Fred Lossing at the National Research Council produced many publications, some amplifying his thesis on butene-1. Kebarle was next hired as professor at the University of Alberta, where he continued his high rate of important publications, until his work “disappeared” because of the internalization in the discipline of chemistry. He worked on electrospray MS, publishing with Udo Verkerk what he considers his most important paper. Karl Kopecky is also interviewed, adding his personal recollections of Kebarle. He claims that Kebarle’s work is so important that it forms the core of the subject in all standard chemistry textbooks.

Dean H. Kedes' oral history begins with a discussion of his childhood and family life. Heavily influenced by his father, also a biomedical scientist, Kedes developed an interest in science early in life. He chose to attend Stanford University, pursuing a major in biology with the intention of applying to medical school. Coursework and research in the neurobiology laboratory of Eric Shooter, however, increased his interest in pursuing basic science. Kedes decided to undertake a joint MD/PhD program at Yale University. He joined the laboratory of Joan A. Steitz to study pre-mRNA splicing. Upon earning his MD/PhD, Kedes returned to Stanford University to undertake his clinical residency, though he experienced difficulty transitioning between laboratory research and clinical medicine. Kedes built upon his laboratory research with post-doctoral studies in Donald Ganem's laboratory at the University of California, San Francisco. There he developed his interests in the molecular biology of infectious diseases including Hepatitis B and Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpes Virus (KSHV). He then accepted a position at the University of Virginia. During the interview Kedes reflects on the importance of balancing family life with laboratory work; creating a positive atmosphere within the laboratory; the importance of the Pew Biomedical Scholars Award award with respect to scientific funding and collaboration; and funding in the United States more broadly.

Jack Keene was born in Florida. His father worked in early computers for the RAND Corporation, and the family moved numerous times. Keene entered University of California, Los Angeles, transferring to University of California, Riverside and majoring in biology. He entered University of Washington for a PhD in microbiology and immunology. During his postdoc at the National Institutes of Health he learned classical sequencing, scientific discipline, and high standards. As an assistant professorship at Duke University, he worked on negative-strand RNA virology until he won the Pew Scholars award. Keene obtained a patent on an autoimmune test kit, a patent he licensed to Duke and on which he consults. Upon becoming a Pew Scholar, Keene discovered RNA recognition motif leading to work on binding specificity. Finding the multibinding of specific sequences has led to Keene’s post-transcription theory and in turn to a coordination theory of RNA operons.  Keene gives his opinions on innate genius versus luck, careerism versus professionalism, and personal responsibility.

Douglas R. Kellogg grew up in St. Paul, Minnesota, the second oldest of four children. He had an early interest in reading, and took classes with several influential teachers. Kellogg first chose the University of Minnesota for his undergraduate studies, but after a summer job in Alaska, he transferred to University of Wisconsin, Madison. He always had an interest in and affinity for biology; between undergraduate and graduate school, Kellogg worked as a lab technician on Drosophila genetics, influencing the path of his future research interests and studies. There was no doubt in his mind that he would become a biologist. Kellogg chose to attend the University of California, San Francisco to pursue his graduate degree, working in Bruce M. Alberts's laboratory studying pattern formation in Drosophila embryo cytoskeleton. After completing his doctoral degree, he decided to stay in San Francisco for a postdoctoral position with Andrew W. Murray and researched the role of mitotic cyclin in coordination of cell growth and cell division. After his postdoc, Kellogg took a position at the University of California, Santa Cruz, where his research has focused on cell-signaling biochemistry in the coordination, division, and regulation of cell growth. In the interview, he spoke at length about the makeup of his lab and how he manages and teaches in the lab. Kellogg also reflects upon the role of technology, critical inquiry, competition, collaborationand creativity in his research and in his science in general. The interview concludes with a discussion of the role of the scientist in educating the public about science, and how this factors in to setting his own and the national scientific agenda; he also offers advice for beginning scientists, and reflects on his favorite scientific papers.

Michael A. Kelly discusses his early interest in radio and television electronics, and his education, including a master's degree at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute and a PhD in nuclear physics at University of California, Berkeley. Kelly joined the Hewlett-Packard Company after completion of his PhD as a research scientist and developed and refined the first ESCA instrumentation. Kelly also discusses his subsequent positions at Surface Science Laboratories, Kevex Corporation, Stanford University, and he reflects on the impact of ESCA and innovation during his career.