In this interview, Karl Folkers first talks about his family and his early exposure to science. He then describes some of his experiences as an undergraduate at the University of Illinois, as a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin, and as a postdoctoral fellow at Yale University. This is followed by a long discussion of his years at Merck, and includes his research on vitamins, particularly vitamin B 12 , his work on penicillin, the structure of research at Merck, and comments on various co-workers and administrators.
For more information on Douglass Forbes, please visit the Pew Scholars in the Biomedical Sciences.
For more information on this oral history, please contact the Director of the Center for Oral History.
During his twenty-one year career at the University of London, Foskett became director of the University Library and Goldsmiths' Librarian. In his interview, Foskett next discusses the formation of the Classification Research Group [CRG] to address the need for new ways to classify scientific literature. Foskett has been a member since CRG's formation, and Foskett developed faceted classification schemes for education and safety and health that are still in use.
Daniel Fox begins the interview with a discussion of his family background and early education. After graduating from high school, he attended Penn State University for one year, then joined the Air Force and became a navigator during World War II. When he returned from his military service, Fox went to Lebanon Valley College, where he earned his BS in chemistry in 1949. He went to graduate school at the University of Illinois, studying polymer chemistry under Carl "Speed" Marvel, then decided to move to the University of Oklahoma, where he worked on nitration studies of diphenols and biphenyls, and received his PhD in 1953. Fox did research for the Atomic Energy Commission, synthesizing isocorsitrone. then in 1953 accepted a position at General Electric, and spent the rest of his career there. He worked on various projects, including polycarbonates, PPPO, PBT, and the development of Lexan and Ultem.
He received his BA in chemistry in 1946 and his MA in chemistry in 1949, both from the University of British Columbia. Francis married shortly after, and he and his wife moved to Iowa, where he continued his studies at the University of Iowa, obtaining a PhD. in biochemistry in 1953. Francis accepted a position with Procter & Gamble in 1952. His first work there involved research on detergents and skin penetration. Procter & Gamble then moved Francis into hair research. Finally, Francis moved to the dental section, where he became involved with fluoride research.
Arnold Frankel attended City College, enrolling in the chemical engineering curriculum and receiving his BS in 1942. While at City College, he met Seymour Mann, who later became his business partner. After graduation, Frankel accepted a position with the US Rubber Company, working at a TNT plant. Soon thereafter, he moved to Publicker Industries, where he did pilot plant work. He also encouraged Mann to join Publicker. They later formed Aceto Chemical, Inc. , and exported a variety of chemicals. Frankel is joined in the second interview by his wife, Miriam Frankel, and they discuss the difficulties of beginning a business and a family at the same time.
John E. Franz contrasts his studies in physical organic chemistry with his training in practical synthetic organic chemistry at Illinois. He also details his discovery of glyphosate, a natural plant growth inhibitor that forms the active ingredient in Roundup, an environmentally friendly herbicide that has become one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. He describes the aftereffects of his discovery-the reactions of Monsanto and other companies, and the steps involved in commercial production of Roundup. Franz then examines his later work to understand amine and phosphine compounds as well as plant growth inhibitors.
Manfred Frasch was born in Holzgerlingen, Germany. He had an early curiosity about how things work, leading him to chemistry and biology. He entered the University of Tübingen, where he studied biochemistry. His diploma thesis concerned gene regulation in Drosophila, which he continued to study through his career. Liking the projects and atmosphere of Tübingen, Frasch stayed for his PhD. He learned cloning techniques and decided to pursue genetic approaches. Wanting to see more of the world, he took a postdoc in Michael Levine's lab at Columbia University, working on the even-skipped gene. After a fellowship at the Max Planck Institute, he accepted a position at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City, where he established his lab and is now a tenured professor.
After completing her BS in chemistry, Helen M. Free first researched assays of antibiotics before moving to dry reagent test systems. Working with tablets, Free helped develop tests to detect abnormal levels of bilirubin, glucose, ketone, and protein in urine. When Bayer Corporation acquired Miles Laboratories, Free stayed with the company, moving into the Growth and Development Department, then becoming Director of Specialty Test Systems. Free formally retired in 1982. She served as president of the American Chemical Society in 1993.
Dov Frohman discusses his career, starting with graduate school in the US, his position at Fairchild, and his job at Intel. He proceeds to discuss the creation of Intel Israel and his role in the company.
Dr. Fuller enlivens the interview with recollections of Harkins and Julius Stieglitz. Appointment as a research chemist under R. R. Williams at Bell Laboratories introduces Calvin Fuller to the infant science of synthetic polymers and to x¬≠ray crystallography. World War II sees Fuller in Washington, DC, heading polymer chemistry research as part of the synthetic rubber program. On return to Bell Laboratories after the war, Fuller decides to move to solid state chemistry and describes his work on semiconductors, leading to the development of the photovoltaic cell.
Jean H. Futrell was born in Grant Parish, Louisiana. He majored in chemical engineering at Louisiana Tech University, and also enrolled in the Air Force ROTC. Futrell attended the University of California at Berkeley for graduate school, where his thesis research was in radiation chemistry. He was introduced to mass spectrometry as an analytical technique, playing a vital role in Futrell’s research. After graduating, Futrell was a radiation chemist exploring applications of radiation processing of petroleum fractions. Required to complete his military service obligation, he was assigned to the Aerospace Research Laboratory and published more than twenty papers. Futrell accepted an appointment as Associate Professor of Chemistry at the University of Utah, influenced by the fundamental theory underlying mass. Futrell continued to build his own versions of spectrometers as unique research tools for exploring the frontiers of ion chemistry. In 1987 Futrell accepted the position of Department Head of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Delaware. In 1998 Futrell was recruited by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to lead the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory as Director. In 2013 he retired and became the first Battelle Fellow Emeritus at PNNL.
Jorge E. Galán was born in a small town near Buenos Aires. After high school he attended the University of La Plata, where he received his Doctor of Veterinary Medicine and his Doctor of Veterinary Science. He became interested in infectious diseases, particularly in horses, and was accepted to the PhD program at the veterinary school at Cornell University. There he discovered his major interest, Salmonella. He worked for several years in Roy Curtiss’s lab at Washington University in St. Louis before he started his own lab at SUNY Stony Brook. There he discovered Type III protein secretion system. He continues to work most hours of every day in his lab, to teach, and to mentor his graduate students and postdoctoral students.
Mary K. Gall was born in New York City in 1922 and grew up in New Jersey and Rhode Island, falling in love with nature during summers spent in Holderness, New Hampshire. After earning a degree in chemistry from Vassar College, she decided that she did not have enough drive for medical school, and that she wanted to be a lab person, not an academic, a view confirmed by jobs she was given in the chemistry lab. Throughout her career, she worked as a chemist for a number of companies, including Hayden Chemicals, McNeil Laboratories, Rohm and Haas, and Mobil Research Laboratories. Gall discusses the changes she has seen in the field, obstacles for women in academia, and her current activities.
Millard G. Gamble capped his 39-year career in sales and marketing of fibers at E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company as the vice president of the Textile Fibers Department. He talks about his post-graduation experiences working for the United States Department of Agriculture and as an officer with the United States Navy. Gamble reflects on joining DuPont in 1945 and his sales experience in the Rayon (later named Textile Fibers) Department.
Adam Garber was born in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1983. He has three sisters, including a twin, and both his parents have PhDs. Adam and his family were very involved in their synagogue and Atlanta’s Jewish community. At the same time, Adam attended private Protestant Christian elementary, middle, and high schools. Adam studied philosophy at St. John’s College in Annapolis, Maryland. While working summers with Georgia PIRG (Public Interest Research Group) on air-quality issues, he considered himself politicized by politicians’ efforts to limit pollution controls despite public desire for clear air. After college graduation Adam worked for two years with New Jersey PIRG to help pass state-level clean-energy policies. He then accepted a position with PennEnvironment, an environmental nonprofit in Philadelphia, where he became deputy director and has worked for nearly a decade.
K. Christopher Garcia grew up in Falls Church, Virginia, the youngest of three children. In high school, he was a tennis player but took an interest in science. After his first year at Tulane University, he took up rugby. In his sophomore year, he broke his neck while playing rugby, and his recovery from these injuries played a major role in Garcia rechanneling his academic efforts into scientific research. Garcia spent a year in Katherine Kennedy's pharmacology lab at George Washington University, where he worked on hypoxia in tumor cells. He went from there to Johns Hopkins University to work on lymphocyte adhesion receptors. He considers James Hildreth, who was a postdoc there at the time, to have been a very influential mentor in steering his interests into protein biochemistry. Garcia switched departments to biophysics and entered L. Mario Amzel's lab to focus on the structures of antibodies. As part of his thesis, he spent some months in Stephen Desiderio's lab to clone and sequence antibodies. These experiences, together with reading a paper from Mark Davis at Stanford on the cloning of the T cell receptor, led Garcia to take on the challenge of determining the TCR structure and how it sees its ligands. Garcia took his interest in receptors to a postdoc at Genentech, where he worked with David Goeddel, Tony Kossiakoff, and Jim Wells to learn aspects of recombinant protein expression and protein engineering. After two years he accepted another postdoc at Scripps Research Institute, working in Ian Wilson's lab. During his stay at Scripps he and his colleagues published a landmark paper on the first TCR and TCR/MHC structure in Science. Shortly following that work, he accepted an assistant professorship at Stanford University.
Eugene Garfield describes his interest in the West, his first jobs in Colorado and California, and his brief military career, injury and subsequent medical discharge. Garfield continues by discussing his undergraduate degree in chemistry, the influence of his first ACS meeting and the Division of Chemical Literature on his life's work. He also talks about his participation in the Welch Medical Library project.
Eugene Garfield begins the interview with a discussion of The Johns Hopkins University Welch Library indexing project. Garfield joined this project in 1951, during which he became involved in machine methods for indexing and searching literature. He worked on automating Current List of Medical Literature and experimented with punched cards and zato coding. He discusses his relationship with Sanford V. Larkey, and his decision to attended library school at Columbia University. After graduating, Garfield joined Smith, Kline & French as a consultant. He eventually set up his own company, DocuMation, Inc., and worked on many projects, including a Genetics Citation Index for the NIH and Management's DocuMation Preview.
William H. Gauvin describes his education at McGill University, which culminated in both wartime work on RDX as well as several early electrochemistry papers. He next recounts his employment with Frank W. Horner Ltd. and the initiation and development of his lifelong spray drying work.
Anirvan Ghosh was in born in Bloomington, Indiana, though his family soon moved to Kanpur, India. His parents were both scholars, so Ghosh lived his life in an academic setting. He stayed in the Indian educational system (which he describes in detail) until he matriculated at the California Institute of Technology. Ghosh undertook undergraduate research in the laboratories of Jack Beacham, Thomas Tombrello, and Jerome Pine. He also worked at Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory, where he had a defining moment during a neurobiology course. At Stanford University for graduate school, he studied under Carla J. Shatz researching brain-cell development. Upon finishing his postdoc, Ghosh accepted a position at Johns Hopkins University, though soon decided to move on to University of California, San Diego, where he remains.
Gary H. Gibbons was born in 1956 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His early interest in science came from books, electronics, and investigating his surroundings. He received his BA in Biology from Princeton University. After receiving his MD from Harvard Medical School, Gibbons took two years off to pursue research in Dr. Clifford Berger's lab studying the renin-angiotensin system and cardiovascular disease. In 1990 Gibbons became a faculty member in the Stanford University Cardiology Department, where he collaborated with Dr. Victor J. Dzau on investigation of the renin-angiotensin system. His is now the director of the Cardiovascular Research Institute at the Morehouse School of Medicine, where he oversees research aimed at decreasing incidence of cardiovascular disease in African-Americans in the southern United States.
Peter G. Gillespie was born in Seattle, Washington, where his love of outdoors and some important high school influences pushed him towards science. Gillespie received his BA in chemistry from Reed College where, during his fellowship studying photoreceptors at the Neurological Science Institute, he became interested in neuroscience. He worked for two years as a lab technician, then entered the University of Washington for his PhD. Gillespie accepted a postdoctoral position at the University of California, San Francisco in James Hudspeth's lab only to move with Hudspeth to University of Texas Southwest. Having held positions at Johns Hopkins University and the Oregon Health and Science University, Gillespie now conducts research at the Vollum Institute, where he studies auditory hair cell signal transduction.
David D. Ginty was born in Danbury, Connecticut and studied biology at Mount St. Mary's. Though the college's small size limited lab opportunities, Ginty was inspired by his professors' love of their work. After his senior year, he was offered a job at National Institutes of Health, but a friend's mother urged him to obtain a PhD. At East Carolina University, he found a small program with close relations between faculty and students. Ginty's interest in the nervous system led him to a postdoc at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, where he worked in John Wagner's lab on growth factor signal transduction in the neuron. He then accepted a position at Johns Hopkins University, where he is today. He continues to work on nerve growth factor and retrograde signaling.
Louis A. Girifalco studied applied science at the University of Cincinnati, and did his PhD research on the adhesion of ice to surfaces. The surface science thesis research naturally evolved into solid state physics when Girifalco began work for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, which eventually became the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. During his career Girifalco met Robert Maddin, which ultimately led an offer of a faculty position for Girifalco at the University of Pennsylvania. At Penn, Girifalco worked in the metallurgical engineering department and reflected upon the creation of the Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter (LSRM), as well as the funding process within LRSM. Fundamentally an interdisciplinary research institute, Girifalco spent time as director of LRSM and discussed his views on the evolution of the academic science research system and on the Nano/Bio Interface Center and other current interdisciplinary research institutes.
Benjamin S. Glick was born in Goroka, New Guinea, but spent much of his childhood in New Salem, Massachusetts, where his father was Dean at Hampshire College. In high school, he came to understand what scientists do, and was influenced by one teacher who combined moral and scientific lessons. Glick studied neuroscience and mathematics at Amherst College for undergrad. Based on advice from Alan Waggoner, he pursued graduate work in biochemistry at Stanford University, where he worked in James Rothman'a lab on the Golgi apparatus and learned about lab management, the culture of science, and mentoring. After a postdoc at University of Basel, Glick accepted a position at University of Chicago, where he has continued researching Golgi apparatus and pursued projects on the structure of transitional endoplasmic reticula.
After completing his training, Goggin first worked on setting up testing procedures for new polymer electrical insulators. While an employee with Dow, Goggin received a patent for a cording stretching apparatus. Goggin's work in Dow's Plastics Division coincided with the rise of plastics in the world market, especially during World War II. He rose steadily through the company, remaining an employee with Dow for his entire career. He retired as Chairman of the Board of Dow Corning Corporation in 1976.
Marcia B. Goldberg grew up in Brookline, Massachusetts. She received her BA from Harvard University, where she developed an interest in physiology, which encouraged her to attend Harvard Medical School. She traveled extensively, including a service trip to Gabon, and explored many aspects of medicine by working with various non-profits. During her residency, she researched virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae alongside Dr. Stephen B. Calderwood. She then spent several years studying Shigella flexneri pathogenesis in Philippe J. Sansonetti's Lab at the Pasteur Institute. Goldberg became assistant professor at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, but after a few years moved to Harvard Medical School. Her current research focuses on the IcsA protein of Shigella flexneri and its role in actin assembly during the bacterium's infection of mammalian host cells.
Jonathan D. Goldberg was born in Hertfordshire, England. An influential teacher and lessons on DNA led Goldberg to pursue biology at University of Liverpool, where he studied biochemistry and had his first experience with intensive lab work. He subsequently attended Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine and received his PhD under David M. Blow; his graduate research focused on protein structure and x-ray crystallography. Drawn by John Kuriyan's more experimental approach in structural biology, Goldberg joined Kuriyan's lab at Rockefeller University for a postdoc, researching the structural biology of cell signaling. James Rothman convinced him to take a position at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center at which he took a hands-on approach to his small lab, and where his research has focused on intracellular transport.
Golde's experience in clinical pathology at NIH steered him into hematologic research at UCSF in Martin J. Cline's laboratory. While at UCSF, Golde met several influential scientists who first sparked his interest in hormones. In 1974, Golde left UCSF for the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), where he continues his affiliation today as Professor of Medicine, Emeritus. Throughout most of the 1970s, Golde's major field of research was in colony-stimulating factors.
James M. Goldey chronicles his involvement with the electronics industry and his career at Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. He describes his interaction with William B. Shockley, Julius Molnar, Jack Moll, and Ian M. Ross. Goldey continues the interview by describing his work assignments at Bell Labs, along with his involvement with the Nike-X missile, silicon transistors, integrated circuit development, and hybrid circuits.
Robert P. Goldstein (Bob Goldstein) grew up in Massapequa, New York, the second of three boys. He attended public schools until high school, when he went to a Roman Catholic school. He did well in his classes, had not yet displayed a special interest in science. Goldstein enrolled in Union College. When he decided that he wanted to study embryology, Ray Rappaport recommended Gary Freeman's lab at the University of Texas for graduate school. Goldstein's first two years in Texas produced nothing substantive, and he switched from ascidian and snail embryos to C. elegans and began to see results. He chose to postdoc in John White's lab at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology of the Medical Research Council in Cambridge, England. No sooner had Goldstein arrived than White left for Wisconsin, but he left behind marvelous equipment, including the original confocal microscope. Goldstein also shared a 4D microscope with Steven Hird, who had independently developed a similar project on axis specification in C. elegans. His love of scientific discovery and enjoyment of his postdoc years led Goldstein to another postdoc at the University of California, Berkeley, in David Weisblat's lab.
Paul D. Gollnick was born in Pullman, Washington. Because his father was a scientist, Paul was, from a young age, interested in science, and he spent hours helping in his father's lab. He attended Washington State University, where he studied biochemistry and worked in Bruce McFadden's laboratory, producing an enzyme inhibitor. Realizing he needed a graduate degree, he entered Iowa State University. In Jack Horowitz's lab, Gollnick worked on nucleic acids and tRNA. Next, Gollnick did postdoc work in Charles Yanofsky's lab. Four years later, with Yanofsky's permission and with TRAP (trp RNA-attenuation protein) in hand, Gollnick applied for faculty positions. He accepted an assistant professorship at SUNY Buffalo, where he is now an associate professor. Gollnick continues his study of TRAP in B. subtilis.
Mary Good received her PhD in 1955, and accepted a position at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge. Her early work included iodine and sulfur chemistry and managing the radiochemistry laboratory. Good discusses her extensive involvement in the American Chemical Society, including her time as chairman of the board and later as president. In 1980, Good was appointed to the National Science Board by President Carter, and was reappointed by President Reagan.
For more information on Bruce Goode, please visit the Pew Scholars in the Biomedical Sciences.
For more information on this oral history, please contact the Director of the Center for Oral History.
James A. Goodrich grew up in Honesdale, Pennsylvania, the oldest of five children. His sophomore chemistry teacher inspired Goodrich's love of chemistry and established his firm desire to be a scientist. Not realizing what other options science majors had, Goodrich decided to become a doctor. As a result he applied only to the University of Scranton, a Jesuit university nearby that had a very good reputation for placing its graduates in medical schools. He majored in biochemistry. He did his doctoral work in Carnegie Mellon's biology department. There he worked on transcription in William McClure's lab. Next Goodrich accepted a postdoc in Robert Tjian's molecular genetics laboratory at University of California, Berkeley; there his research focused on human transcription. Goodrich accepted a position at University of Colorado, Boulder. He discusses setting up his lab and its makeup; the impact of the Pew Scholars Program in the Biomedical Sciences grant on his work; and his teaching responsibilities. He talks about his current research studying the molecular mechanisms of mammalian transcription; about the University of Colorado, Boulder's facilities; about competition and collaboration in science; tenure; and his administrative duties.
Roberta A. Sanchez Gottlieb grew up on a cattle ranch near Albuquerque, New Mexico. She was heavily influenced by her parents who valued education and curiosity, and had several influential teachers in school who contributed to her intellectual development. Gottlieb matriculated at Bryn Mawr College, but almost immediately transferred to Johns Hopkins University, where she undertook biophysical research with Michael Beers, focusing on electron microscopy and developed an interest in microtubule assembly, She stayed at Johns Hopkins for medical school and completed her residency at University of Texas Health Science, focusing on pediatrics and hematology-oncology. She also worked with Steven Buescher on neutrophils in the department of infectious diseases. After two postdocs, she moved to a position at Scripps Research Institute.
Daniel E. Gottschling was born in Gary, Indiana, where nearby woods inspired his early interest in science. During his undergraduate years at Augustana College, he majored in chemistry. He attended graduate school at the University of Colorado, Boulder, where he helped Thomas Cech set up his lab and worked on ciliate chromosomes, finally focusing on telomeres. After finishing his degree, he accepted a postdoc at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, working on ciliate telomeres in Virginia Zakian's yeast genetics lab. Gottschling accepted an assistant and then an associate professorship at the University of Chicago, leaving behind his ciliates and moving into yeast and epigenetics. He returned to the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center seven years later, where he continues his research on yeast.
Martyn D. Goulding was born in Auckland, New Zealand and attended Auckland University Medical School. His first laboratory experience with Raymond K. Ralph sparked his interest in research and he switched from an MD to a PhD program. In Ralph's lab he studied the role of cyclic AMP in tumor cell growth regulation and c-fos and other oncogenes. Next, he took a postdoc in Peter Gruss's lab at the Max Planck Institute, where he researched PAX genes and their role in notochord development. In 1992 Goulding took faculty positions at University of California, San Diego and the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. He now researches spinal chord interneurons and the genes and transcription factors which during development are crucial to the appropriate growth and function of these interneurons.
George Govier received his ScD in chemical engineering in 1949. In 1948, Govier became the head of the University of Alberta's Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, and was instrumental in developing the program there. Eleven years later, he accepted the position of dean of the Faculty of Engineering, a position which he held until his departure from the University of Alberta. Govier then became the chairman of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Conservation Board, an organization in which he had been active since 1948.
Green and Asbury recall the IG research organization. The wartime pressures during the development of GR-S, and the problems at the Baton Rouge plant are discussed by Green, while Asbury tells of his visit to Germany with the US Strategic Bombing Survey. The political recriminations of the prewar cooperation between Standard Oil and IG Farben are recollected as are visits to Germany in the 1930s and 1950s. The interview ends with a survey of the postwar move into chemicals, the Ziegler process and the future of the oil and petrochemical industries.
Jean T. Greenberg was raised in New York City and attended Barnard College, where time spent working in a biophysics lab piqued her interest in the subject. She decided to study biophysics at Harvard University. There she worked in Bruce Demple's laboratory defining the genes involved in the control of the adaptive responses to oxidative stress in bacteria. She appreciated the freedom and personal attention she received, as well as the strong support group of other students and professors. She stayed at Harvard for her postdoc, studying disease resistance and symptoms in the plant Arabidopsis. Next, she accepted a position at University of Colorado, Boulder, mapping and characterizing the genes involved in disease resistance, and then at the University at Chicago, where she is today.
Mark Greenwood joined the EPA’s Office of General Counsel and eventually became the Assistant General Counsel for Pesticides and Toxic Substances. From there Greenwood joined the newly re-named Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxic Substances as Office Director. From his perspective, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) is comprised of both a risk assessment and risk management program, but these have developed separately and often in conflict with each other. Greenwood outlines his vision and expectations for toxics reform. With REACH generating risk information, he expects EPA to focus increasingly on risk management, with or without new legislation. He discusses the importance of communicating chemical information to downstream users, as well as the political and practical feasibility of erasing the new chemicals/existing chemical distinction.
Greer studied chemistry at the small Grove City College, but with one year at Carnegie Institute of Technology, and then continued further studies in chemical engineering at Case. The years up to the outbreak of World War II were spent with Union Carbide, working on the early development of petrochemicals. Greer then moved to Washington, DC, to join the War Production Board, but soon after transferred to the Office of the Rubber Director where he played an important role in process development and product quality of the butadiene-styrene rubber, GR-S.
After the war, Gregory simultaneously gained both a Bachelor's degree at Princeton University and a Master's degree at Harvard University. Then in 1949, he began his career at the Rohm and Haas Company by conducting internal auditing in three plants. He then ran Rohm and Haas' agricultural-chemical operations in England before becoming Director of European Operations.
Carol W. Greider was born in San Diego, California. Beatrice Sweeney, a family friend, inspired Greider to attend University of California, Santa Barbara, where she studied circadian rhythms, working with a graduate student who studied microtubules in chicken brains. In part because of Elizabeth Blackburn, Greider decided to attend graduate school at University of California, Berkeley. There she became interested in how sequences are added into telomeres. She discovered the telomerase enzyme and determined its nucleic acid component, finding that telomerase is sensitive to RNase and has an RNA component. She then accepted a postdoc at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, where she remains. Greider continues work on telomerase, relating it to human aging and cellular senescence and attempting to clone the RNA component of telomerase.
Mark W. Grinstaff was born in Texas, the elder of two sons. He attended Occidental College. As a sophomore working in Franklin DeHaan's kinetic chemistry laboratory he fell in love with lab research. Grinstaff chose graduate school at University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign because they had a strong inorganic chemistry department and because it was not California. There he worked in Kenneth S. Suslick's laboratory; his doctoral project used sound waves to make amorphous iron and protein-microsphere compounds. For his postdoc, Grinstaff conducted research on electron transfer and catalysis in Harry Gray's laboratory at the California Institute of Technology. Grinstaff accepted a position at Duke University and foraged for equipment to set up his lab; he prefers to spend his money on people. He describes his research making diagnostic devices based on DNA electron transfer, designing single molecular-weight polymers, and polymers for ophthalmic wound repair. He continues with more clinical applications of his research; the issue of patents; commercialization of his research (he has founded two companies); his current research projects in biomaterials chemistry and nanotechnology; and the impact of the Pew Scholars Program in the Biomedical Sciences on his work.
Mihal Gross attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. At MIT, Gross's wide-ranging interests led her to explore chemical oceanography, chemical engineering, and materials science, while also enjoying the intense freshman chemistry classes and labs, ultimately leading her to major in chemistry as the central science around which her multidisciplinary interests revolved. Gross pursued graduate research in organometallic photochemistry at Northwestern University, where she received her PhD. Gross joined AT&T Bell Laboratories as a Member of Technical Staff in 1981. Her research focused on the emerging areas of chemical vapor deposition, laser and ion beam direct-write, and other aspects of thin film science related to electrical, optical, and superconducting properties of materials for high performance integrated circuits and devices. She discusses founding the Chemical Perspectives of Microelectronic Materials Symposium at the annual Materials Research Society conference to highlight the importance of chemistry in the semiconductor revolution in the context of a multidisciplinary venue. After twenty years at Bell Labs she was selected as the AAAS/RAND Science and Technology Policy Fellow at RAND, conducting studies on the impact of government policies on science and technology workforce issues and technology transition of federally funded research for the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. She moved to the Office of Naval Research as Program Officer for the Functional Solid State and Nanostructured Materials Program and currently serves as Program Manager for the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Science's Nanoscale Science Research Centers and Electron Beam Microcharacterization Centers.
Andrew Grove studied fluid dynamics with Andreas Acrivos at the University of California, Berkeley, publishing four papers from a doctoral thesis. He also studied solid state physics and became employed by Fairchild Semiconductor. Grove cites Gordon E. Moore as a decisive factor in accepting the position. Grove had a close relationship to Moore at both Fairchild and Intel Corporation. The combination of personalities of Fairchild Semiconductor executives contributed to its success, a pattern which emerged in Intel Corporation as well after its founding by Grove, Gordon Moore, and Robert Noyce.
Isy Haas was born in Istanbul, Turkey. He matriculated into Princeton University, where he obtained a master's degree in engineering; his mentor and advisor was George Warfield. Haas accepted a job at Remington Rand Univac in Philadelphia, working on positive-gap diodes under Josh Gray. Subsequently he went to Fairchild Camera and Instrument (later Fairchild Semiconductor); there he worked with Gordon Moore, Robert Noyce, Victor Grinich, and Jay Last. He developed Avalanche switching and wrote a few papers on four-layer diodes. When Last founded Amelco Corporation, Haas left Fairchild for Amelco and stayed on when it became part of Teledyne. He worked with Lionel Kattner on diffusion, and they evolved a proof of principle for diffused isolation.