Browse Oral Histories Alphabetically

Qiufu Ma was born in a remote mountain village in Zhejang Province, China. Qiufu’s academic achievements won him coveted placements throughout his education, including an assignment to UCLA’s PhD program in biochemistry through Ray Wu’s CUSBEA program. In Harvey Herschman’s lab he worked on how growth factor stimulates cell growth, looking for homologs in yeast and Drosophila. After two postdocs, Ma accepted a position at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute with a package allowing him to move from early neural stem-cell research to late-feature development, focusing on pain perception. With help from Clifford Woolf and Charles Stiles, Ma developed and patented RUNX1 and found that Stanley Korsmeyer’s TLX3 was specific to the nervous system. Ma hopes that eventually his work will lead to treatment for neuropathic pain. He talks a little about the legal limitations on stem-cell research and about the controversy over teaching of evolution, as well as Chinese attitudes toward evolutionHe says the future of his field lies in developing opiates for treatment of pain in cancer sufferers.

Alan G. MacDiarmid begins his interview by discussing his childhood and the two books that sparked his interest in chemistry. MacDiarmid, with degrees from University of New Zealand, University of Wisconsin, Madison, and University of Cambridge, focused his work on inorganic chemistry and accepted a faculty position at University of Pennsylvania. MacDiarmid discusses his lengthy career at Penn, his Nobel Prize-winning work with Hideki Shirakawa and Alan Heeger, and the benefits of interdisciplinary research. 

Paul M. Macdonald was born in Denver, Colorado. Uninterested in school and preferring outdoor sports, attended Colorado State University's forestry school, but remained undirected until a class with Larry Hopwood in radiation biology. He loved the class and worked in the lab. Because of his excellent GRE scores and his lab work he was able to attend graduate school at Georgia Tech, where he worked on bacteriophage mutant. After finishing his Ph.D. at Vanderbilt and postdocs at Harvard and Columbia, he took a faculty position at Stanford University. His work included studying how molecules that control patterning are localized, comparing RNA sequences from different Drosophila species, redundancy of information in Drosophila RNA, and the role of chance in his mRNA oskar research. 

John D. Macdougall summarizes his graduate and doctoral work before discussing his career at Sprague Electric Company in the research and development department, specifically working on ion implementation. At Sprague, Macdougall built a permanent magnet velocity filter and scanning system, worked on PNP transistors, implanted TTL circuits and linears circuits, and aided in the developmental progress of MOS [metal oxide semiconductors] to MOSFETS [meta oxide semiconductor field effect transistors], among other projects. Macdougall also discusses his move to the Worcester facility, the sale of Sprague to General Cable, and his work in engineering management at General Cable. 

Carolyn E. Machamer was born near Detroit, Michigan, and showed early interest in biology. She attended Bucknell University, taking all the science courses on offer, working on acrosomes in Sally Nyquist's lab. Machamer took a fellowship at Duke University and began work on SSPE virus. She worked in Peter Cresswell's lab, where she finished her thesis research on major histocompatibility complex antigens. She then took a postdoc at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, where she worked in John K. Rose's lab, studying M glycoprotein and RNA viruses. Improved technology allowed a breakthrough in her coronavirus research, which she published after moving to Yale University, where she stayed for about a year. Machamer then joined the faculty of Johns Hopkins University, where she remains today. 

Roderick MacKinnon was born in Melrose, Massachusetts. While at University of Massachusetts, Boston, science came easily, so he continued his undergraduate work in biochemistry at Brandeis University. Unsure what he wanted to do after college, MacKinnon entered Tufts University medical school, though he quickly realized he did not want to practice medicine. He explains how his childhood interest in understanding natural systems, problem-solving, and mathematics led to this decision. He spent time working in Christopher Miller's lab, then accepted a position at Harvard Medical School, where he applied a structural biology approach to the study of ion channels. MacKinnon talks about his teaching and research responsibilities at Rockefeller University, where he now works, recent molecular genetics work, ion channel structure research, collaborative work, and more. 

Robert Maddin begins the interview by discussing his childhood and education and early work experiences including his time at Brooklyn College, his B.Sc. in metallurgical engineering, his Dr. Eng in metallurgy at Yale University, and his Armed Forces service during World War II. Maddin spent several years teaching at Johns Hopkins University before moving on to the University of Pennsylvania, where he was the head of the metallurgy department. Maddin describes starting up the Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter and his shift to the history of science, including his second career at Harvard University's anthropology department. 

Boris Magasanik begins the interview by discussing his childhood years, move to the United States from Austria just before World War II. Magasanik's graduate studies in biochemistry at Pennsylvania State University were interrupted by World War II, in which Magasanik served; he resumed his studies at Columbia University postwar and researched inositols and RNA. Magasanik discusses his career at Harvard University, as well as his time at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where Magasanik is still a faculty member and founded the Center for Cancer Research. 

Alfred T. Malouf has always been curious about how things worked. At the University of California, San Diego, he took a class in pharmacology with Morton Printz and spent two years in Printz's lab. He then studied neuroscience at Johns Hopkins University and entered Joseph Coyle's lab to work on kainic acid. Still fascinated by how things work, he accepted a postdoc with Floyd Bloom at Scripps Research Institute, where he learned physiology and electrophysiology. Next, he accepted a fellowship in Philip Schwartzkroin's lab at the University of Washington, studying the physiology of the hippocampus. Malouf now has his lab at Case Western Reserve University. He finds basic science exciting, but he also loves to see clinical relevance; he tries to balance intellectual pursuit with societal goals. 

Kenneth E. Manchester discusses his service in World War II and his educational experiences, including his A.B. at San Jose State College,his M.S. and Ph.D. at Stanford  University, and postdoctoral fellowship under Eric Hutchinson. Manchester first joined Shell Development Company and later moved to Sprague Electric Company, where he directed a research group that pioneered in the development of ion implantation and later headed semiconductor research and quality assurance. He concludes the interview with his thoughts on the need for chemists in semiconductor development. 

Leo Mandelkern begins the interview by discussing his early life and education at Cornell University, including his graduate work and associations with J. G. Kirkwood, Franklin Long, and Paul Flory. Mandelkern also recalls his career at the National Bureau of Standards as well as his recent work at Florida State University. He concludes by commenting on methods of solving scientific controversies. 

Robert J. Manning begins the interview by discussing his educational background in chemistry and his United States Navy research on rocket fuel. Manning relates the details of his lengthy career at Beckman Instruments, Inc. , where he gravitated toward infrared instrumentation. Manning also reflects on education and information sharing at Beckman. 

Timothy L. Manser majored in biology at University of California, San Diego, working on Dictyostelium in William Loomis’ lab. For graduate school he chose University of Utah. Influenced by Martin Rechsteiner, Manser began work in small nuclear RNAs focusing on the genes that encoded these RNAs in humans. When he had had enough of DNA cloning and sequencing of genes he decided to switch fields to immunology. He took a postdoc at Massachusetts Institute of Technology with Malcolm Gefter. Manser’s first job was at Princeton University, where he has continued his work on B cells.

Raymond March was born in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. March’s childhood was shaped by World War II, and by a mysterious polio-like paralysis which caused him to miss a great deal of school. He took an apprenticeship with PAMETRADA (Parsons and Marine Engineering Turbine Research and Development Association) Research Station before gaining admittance to University of Leeds. There he majored in chemistry and was in the University Air Squadron. He accepted a scholarship to the University of Toronto, where he worked on flash photolysis with John Polanyi. March developed a needle loop technique at Johnson & Johnson, then took a postdoc position in at McGill University, where he worked on methyl metals and microwave discharges; on atmospheric chemistry; and on aluminum trimethyl and impact work for Gerald Bull, who built the supergun. He took an assistant professorship at the brand-new Trent University in Peterborough, Ontario. On a sabbatical in France, March learned mass spectrometry and ion traps from Jean Durup and has continued to specialize in quadrupole mass spectrometers and to refine ion traps. Becoming interested in flavonoids, March established the Trent University Water Quality Centre and added an interest in antibiotics. March discusses his contributions to the establishment of Trent University; his role on the editorial board of the International Journal of Mass Spectrometry; his many friends and colleagues; his trips to Europe; funding; and his patents. He concludes with an encomium of the quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer on the Rosetta mission to characterize a comet.

Rudolph A. Marcus discusses his early life and education, including his time at McGill University, where he received a Ph.D. in chemistry and worked on World War II-related research with Carl Winkler, and at University of North Carolina, where in his postdoctoral research he began to focus on theory, specifically RRKM theory. Marcus also discusses his time as a professor at Brooklyn Polytechnic University, including his colleagues and his interest in electrostatics and polyelectrolytes, and his later position at University of Illinois. Marcus concludes his interview by speaking about his most current academic position at California Institute of Technology and his thoughts on his electron transfer work. 

Marvin Margoshes grew up in New York City, New York. He was always interested in science, settling on chemistry when he was at Brooklyn Technical High School.  After high school Margoshes worked in a chemistry lab at New York University Medical School until he enlisted in the US Army.  He was sent to the Pacific theater, where he fought in the Battle of Leyte and the Battle of Okinawa.  After the war, Margoshes enrolled at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, then did his graduate work at Iowa State University, where his advisor, Velmer Fassel, assigned him to run an infrared spectroscopy lab with George Hammond.  Margoshes then moved on to Harvard University, where he was a research fellow, had an unpaid job in flame spectroscopy at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and worked with Bert Vallee on a study of cadmium as a cause of hypertension. Margoshes began work in the analytical chemistry spectrometry group of Bourdon Scribner at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). There he worked with cyanogen and spent a year studying Russian, as most of the work published about cyanogen was in that language. Margoshes began computer work using the time sharing computer; he invented a coenzymometer (DetermiTubes), and had an idea for a glucose analyzer but could not sell the idea to Technicon. After nearly twenty years at NBS, Margoshes went to work at Block Engineering, doing Fourier transform analysis with Tomas Hirschfeld.  After just two years he moved to Technicon. Technicon was sold several times; when Bayer AG acquired it Margoshes quit because Bayer refused to do business in Israel. At the end of the interview, Margoshes moves on to a discussion of the evolution of electronics, the development of small instruments, and the size and power of computers. Throughout the interview Margoshes stresses the importance of broad general knowledge. His advice to young people is not to specialize too much, as everything changes, often rapidly.

Herman Mark begins his three-part interview by discussing his research at the Universities of Vienna and Berlin, as well as at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, where Mark collaborated with various colleagues and used x-ray diffraction to establish the crystal structures of small organic molecules and metals. Mark also discusses his time at I. G. Farben, where he established a polymer laboratory and, due to the worsening political climate, left for Vienna to set up the first comprehensive polymer research and training institute. Mark recalls setting up the Polymer Research Institute at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute and his role in the formation of the literature of polymer science and technology. 

Russell E. Marker discusses his early life, including his childhood in a farming community, as well as his education, including his time at the University of Maryland. Marker recalls his positions at the Naval Powder Factory and the Ethyl Gasoline Corporation, where he devised the octane rating system. Marker also talks about his interest in synthesizing human hormones from plants and his travels to Mexico to examine indigenous plant life. 

Rory M. Marks was born in Sydney, Australia. He was always interested in how things work, and once took apart the garbage disposal to better understand it. Marks attended the University of New South Wales, then entered medical school. After his third year he did an optional year of research, working with T-cell immunity to salmonella in rats; after three or four years in the same lab he chose vascular biology for his field. After an internship in Australia, Marks decided science was best in the United States, and went to the University of Michigan, working in Peter Ward's lab on oxygen-deprived free radicals in vascular tissue damage. He is still at the University of Michigan, where he continues to study tropical diseases and their vascular implications. 

John C. Martin begins the interview by describing Gilead when he first joined in 1990. Martin recalls his first meeting with Gordon E. Moore, who joined the board around the same period as Martin. Martin then reflectes on serving on the Gilead board with Donald Rumsfeld and Moore, and also explains how Moore's experiences at Intel helped shaped polices of the compensation committee and audit committee on which he served. Lastly Martin speaks about Gilead's no-profit tiered pricing policy and the impact it has on developing countries, as well as final thoughts on Moore. 

Carl Marvel discusses his early life, including his youth on a farm, and his education, including his undergraduate years at Illinois Wesleyan College and his graduate studies at University of Illinois. Marvel recalls his consulting work for DuPont and his World War II work, including his direction of the federal rubber program and anti-malarial and chemical warfare agents research. Marvel concludes by speaking about his most recent research in polymers, his family, hobbies, and involvement with the American Chemical Society. 

Thomas Mastin begins this interview by discussing his childhood in Indiana and the untimely death of his father. He then explains the origins of his interest in chemistry, his early career at Lubrizol, and his transition from research into management. Mastin shares his opinions on management philosophy and the place of research in the chemical industry. Finally, Mastin reflects on the changes in the industry, his receipt of the Society of Chemistry Award, and his continued interest in photography and nature study. 

William W. Mattox was born in South Bend, Indiana and attended Michigan State University, where he worked in Drosophila and RNA processing labs; his ideas of science and of himself evolved from being around others in science, reading, and coursework. At the California Institute of Technology, he worked in Norman Davidson's lab on heldup-A gene. He became interested in sex determination when heard a talk by Bruce Baker, who explained that temperature differences sometimes determine sex in a number of animals. As a result, he took a postdoc in Baker's lab at Stanford University. Now at MD Anderson Cancer Center, he teaches experimental genetics, sits on student committees, and attempts to keep up with the explosion of scientific knowledge now so much more easily available. 

Mayo traces his professional career as a research chemist with Du Pont, as an instructor at the University of Chicago where his primary role was the supervision of Morris Kharasch's research group, as a group leader at U. S. Rubber during and after World War II, as a research associate at General Electric, and finally as a fellow at SRI International. He also comments on the rise of free radical chemistry and the value of applying basic research to practical problems. 

McAfee discusses his career in chemical engineering, having studied at the University of Texas and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and having worked as a research and operating engineer for Universal Oil Products Company before accepting a position as technical specialist with Gulf Oil Corporation in Port Arthur. He served as Chairman of the Board and CEO of Gulf for six years before retiring in 1981. His career with Gulf took him to Pennsylvania, London, and Toronto. 

A. Kimberley McAllister attended Davidson College in North Carolina and planned to become a physician. During the summers she did research into the hippocampus in Julio Ramirez’s lab. After one year in medical school, McAllister spent a year as a technician in Anthony-Samuel LaMantia’s lab, working on cortical. Lawrence Katz became her PhD advisor, and in his lab she learned that experiences cause physiological changes to the brain; this discovery drew her into the study of plasticity. McAllister took a postdoc in Charles Stevens’s lab at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, intending to learn electrophysiology and quantitative neuroscience, and from Jane Sullivan received help learning programming and learning to use a slice rig. The job search led to University of California, Davis. McAllister’s three current areas of work include synapse formation, using fluorophores as tags, the role of immune molecules in synapse formation, and the role of immune molecules in neurological development, specifically dealing with autism.

McBrayer discusses his studies in chemical engineering at Vanderbilt University and his career at Exxon, eventually becoming president of the corporation. During his years at Exxon Chemical, McBrayer was heavily involved in environmental issues; he helped to set up Clean Sites, Inc. and has been active in the Chemical Manufacturers Association Responsible Care program. In 1992, the same year that he was awarded the Chemical Industry Medal, McBrayer retired from Exxon Chemical. 

James A. McCloskey, Jr. , grew up in San Antonio, Texas. He entered Trinity University in San Antonio, where he majored in chemistry; he earned a PhD in analytical chemistry from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. After fulfilling his ROTC commitment by working for the US Army Chemical Corps, McCloskey returned to Klaus Biemann's lab at MIT, where he began his lifelong interest in and study of nucleosides/nucleotides, necessitating different types of mass spectrometers. He turned down the Karolinska Institutet for a job at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas. He began a twenty-year collaboration with Susumu Nishimura in Tokyo, Japan, and made his first of many trips there. His lab discovered the nucleoside Q. He began his part of the search for the roots of the tree of life, which consists of bacteria, eukaryotes, and archaea. McCloskey spent six months of a sabbatical at the National Cancer Research Institute in Tokyo before going to the University of Utah as a visiting professor. He decided to accept a full professorship there. McCloskey became secretary, vice president, then president of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry (ASMS). 

Susan McConnell grew up in Crown Point, Indiana. She was a biology major at Harvard University, specializing in animal behavior; she found summer work at the Wisconsin Primate Center. After graduation she worked for Howard Gardner at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. Then, a year later, McConnell entered Simon LeVay’s lab at Harvard, working on the visual system in mammals and moving with the lab to the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. For postdoctoral work, McConnell went to Carla Shatz’s lab at Stanford University, funded by the National Eye Institute. McConnell accepted a Clare Booth Luce professorship at Stanford.

Susan McConnell attended Harvard University, majoring in biology and specializing in animal behavior. She found summer work at the Wisconsin Primate Center, but still questioned the mechanisms of behavior and began thinking in terms of cells. After graduation she worked for Howard Gardner at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. Interested more than ever in cells, especially the neuron, and found that work critical for formulating her continued studies. McConnell entered Simon LeVay’s lab at Harvard, working in the visual system in mammals and moving with the lab to the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. For postdoctoral work, McConnell went to Carla Shatz’s lab at Stanford University, funded by the National Eye Institute. McConnell accepted a professorship at Stanford, which she loves.

Sharon McCormick grew up Northeast Philadelphia. Moving when her children were adolescent, she chose Ambler for its walkability, quaintness, and neighborhood feel. At that time she did not know about the asbestos dumps there. She increased her involvement when the Borough Council wanted to permit a high-rise on the BoRit Asbestos Area. She immersed herself in research about asbestos and the previous EPA remediation in Ambler. She encountered the frustration of dealing with a bureaucracy, but helped fund Citizens for a Better Ambler and the BoRit community advisory group. Other residents became educated and were also galvanized to demand more comprehensive containment and monitoring of the waste. McCormick was elected to the Borough of Ambler Council, informing people of health risks. She has been championing full removal of the asbestos factory and new technology to accomplish the task. McCormick's has taken pictures of the waste still extant and has compiled statistics of the area's deaths and illnesses due to asbestos. She fights repeatedly against the appellation acceptable risk," which she insists does not mean safe. Nevertheless, McCormick loves living in Ambler. "

Timothy J. McDonnell was always fascinated with the natural world. He left high school early without graduating and attended the United States International University, where he studied biology, transferring to University of California, San Diego. McDonnell attended graduate school at the University of North Dakota for his Ph.D. and M.D. , where he taught anatomy and worked in the John O. Oberpriller laboratory; his research on cardiac muscle demonstrated that differentiated cells are not necessarily postmitotic. Wanting to combine research with practice, he accepted a postdoc in the Stanley Korsmeyer lab, searching for cancer-causing genes in mice. Next, McDonnell accepted an appointment at the University of Texas. McDonnell discusses learning molecular biology techniques, programmed cell death, growth rate of cancer cells, and mice as models of human disease. 

Anne McDonough grew up in State College, Pennsylvania. At Pennsylvania State University she majored in biology and environment and in education. She now teaches science at Wissahickon High School. Her husband is also in the sciences. To be close to their jobs they settled in Ambler. Though they knew about the area’s asbestos-containing waste, they decided that the EPA’s remediation had the risk under control. McDonough says that as a scientist she is more concerned about the unknown substances in our everyday lives than about the remediated asbestos. In the case of the proposed high-rise, though, she thought that digging would send the asbestos airborne, at which point it would become dangerous. She was chosen for the REACH teaching project; it is a three-year science course for high-school students that she hopes will teach students when and how to become active in their communities, as well as basic science concepts. McDonough talks a little about the improved economic situation and the increase in college-bound high-school students in Ambler. She credits the citizens of the various affected boroughs and townships with identifying the asbestos danger and with successfully petitioning for inclusion on the EPA’s National Priorities List. She emphasizes the importance of communication between EPA and community.

Keith McKennon discusses his youth and interests in research and chemistry, as well as his subsequent years at Oregon State University. McKennon reflects on his multiple career paths at Dow Chemical Company and Shell Chemical Company, from working in a sales position to research management and then as a Director of government relations and public issues. McKennon describes his next major career turn-dealing with public concern about dioxin in Agent Orange, and later, at Dow Corning, with the silicon implant affair. 

Michael McKeown grew up in a small town near San Francisco, California. McKeown attended Stanford University, where he began in math but switched to biology. He liked the small classes and the opportunity for close interaction with the faculty. He worked in a lab during summers, studying bacteria and publishing one paper on thymidine.McKeown decided to use his Helen Hay Whitney Foundation Fellowship at University of California, San Diego. He began working in Dictyostelium in Richard Firtel’s lab, but switched to Drosophila. For his postdoc, McKeown stayed at UCSD and worked in Bruce Baker’s lab. McKeown accepted an offer at The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, continuing his work on Drosophila.

McLafferty discusses his upbringing as he continued his education in chemistry in an accelerated degree program at the University of Nebraska during World War II. Having enlisted in the war and after months of combat, McLafferty returned to Nebraska to earn his Master's degree and later his doctoral degree at Cornell University. Shifting his interests to organic chemistry, he entered industry at the Dow Chemical Company where he was introduced to mass spectrometry, a field that figures prominently in much of McLafferty's collaborations and scientific work. Eventually, he moved into academia, teaching and researching at Purdue University and then Cornell University. 

McMillan discusses his upbringing in Montebello, California, having expressed an early interest in science, eventually attaining a B.A. in chemistry at UCLA, a M.S. at Columbia, and later on a Ph.D. in chemical physics. McMillan was employed in the Special Alloys and Materials Project, a forerunner to the Manhattan Project, but later joined the faculty of UCLA while working for the RAND Corporation as a consultant to the U. S. military. Also having worked with the Armed Forces in Vietnam, McMillan contracted hepatitis and developed blood chemistry analysis. Some of his personal research projects have included: global warming and ozone depletion issues; atmospheric studies of Venus; and Neutrinos work. 

Harold McNair grew up in Miami, Arizona, one of two sons. His parents worked in the local copper mines; they were not highly educated, but they valued education and encouraged Harold. He did well in school but also loved sports, playing tennis especially well. He attended the University of Arizona where he majored in chemistry and minored in physics. McNair entered Purdue University's PhD program and worked in industry during the summers. Fascinated by instrumentation, he met A. J. P. Martin at Amoco and cemented his interest in gas chromatography (GC). At a GC meeting J. J. Van Deemter encouraged him to build Purdue's first gas chromatograph. McNair's next stop was Eindhoven, the Netherlands, for a Fulbright Scholarship, working with A. I. M. Keulemans. He returned to the United States to a job at Esso, studying rocket fuels for the US Department of Defense. In addition to his regular duties McNair wrote Basic  Gas Chromatography. After a year he left Esso for F&M Scientific, and they moved back to Amsterdam. After three years McNair went to Varian, Inc. , to be director of European operations. McNair was recruited by two of his former Purdue professors to take a professorship at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech). With some of his students McNair established COLACRO (Congress in Latin America about Chromatography), which has taught short courses and introduced GC into almost all of the countries in Latin America. 

Robert L. McNeil, Jr. discusses the evolution of his family's drugstore, the Firm of Robert McNeil and later McNeil Laboratories, after earning his B.S. in physiological chemistry and bacteriology at Yale University. Returning to Philadelphia, McNeil enrolled in the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Temple University's Graduate Pharmacy School, thus beginning his career in the family business and eventually becoming head of a successful pharmaceutical company. As a prominent figure in the pharmaceutical field, McNeil introduced top-selling pharmaceuticals in the nation, like Butisol¬Æ and eventually Tylenol¬Æ, and became president of the Philadelphia Drug Exchange and the Philadelphia branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 

Carver A. Mead discusses his early interest in electronics, his studies in electrical engineering at the California Institute of Technology, and his long history of entrepreneurial activity that continues to the present day. Mead conducted transistor research and pioneered automated design methodologies for VLSI devices. 

Linda C. Meade-Tollin was born and raised in London, West Virginia, one of two children. Her father was a dentist and a community activist, her mother a teacher of languages and a guidance counselor. Always enthusiastically encouraged by parents and teachers, Meade-Tollin did well in school, skipping two grades. When she was in ninth grade her high school was integrated, and the three top graduates in her year were black women. Although there were no science classes in her schools until high school, Meade-Tollin was always interested in science, and when she entered West Virginia State College she decided to major in chemistry. She worked at Harlem and Bellevue Hospitals before entering a chemistry PhD program at the City University of New York (CUNY) at the age of twenty one; a year later she transferred to a program in biochemistry. During her graduate career, Meade-Tollin spent time teaching and she traveled among the various CUNY campuses to do research with Burton Tropp-her doctoral thesis dealt with gene expression in  E. coli . Meade-Tollin's first faculty appointment was at the College at Old Westbury, and, for part of her time there, she was also a visiting assistant professor at Rockefeller University, working on sickle cell anemia in Anthony Cerami's lab. She applied for and received a National Institutes of Health postdoctoral award at the University of Arizona; at the end of her award at Arizona, Meade-Tollin married and she also decided to stay at the University. She was the only African-American woman to head a biomedical research laboratory at the University for many years; her areas of research focused on DNA damage, angiogenesis, and cancer invasion and metastasis. During this time she developed a reproducible and physiologically relevant bioassay for angiogenic inhibitors and enhancers suitable for drug discovery screening, and she spent a year as Faculty Development Fellow at Morehouse School of Medicine. 

A. J. Meadows discusses his reasons for studying both astronomy and the history of science, and how that led to his appointment in both departments at the University of Leicester. Meadows also comments on his initial interest in information science, later establishing two centers for communication studies, and becoming associated with the Institute for Information Scientists [IIS], the Library Association [LA], and Aslib. He then discusses online communication's impact on information science with the example of BioMedNet and the e-print system, his relationship with Donald  J. Urquhart, and the definition of the words information," "documentation," and "library. "   "

Markus D. Meister was born in Siegsdorf, Germany. When he was seven, the family moved to Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York. Markus remembers visiting his father at work and walking through a particle accelerator tunnel. He attended the University of Munich, but not feeling challenged, chose to attend the California Institute of Technology for his PhD, and was recruited into Edward Stone's cosmic-ray lab. During this time, Meister attended a colloquium given by Howard C. Berg about flagellar motion, a talk that pushed Markus in the direction of biology. He spent a summer in Berg's lab and was given permission to write his PhD thesis for Berg. As a postdoc in Dennis Baylor's lab at Stanford, Meister developed an interest in neuroscience and human visual perception. He accepted an assistant professorship at Harvard Medical School, where he now has tenure. 

For more information on Pamela Meluh, please visit the Pew Scholars in the Biomedical Sciences.

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After earning his BS in chemical engineering at Case Western Reserve University, Arthur I. Mendolia began to work at DuPont as a research engineer but later rose in managerial positions such as Vice President of Explosives. DuPont recommended Mendolia for a position in the U. S. Department of Defense [DOD], where he learned more about management, organization, finances, and worked personally with President Gerald Ford. Mendolia later became involved in corporate ventures, becoming president of Halcon International and chairman of Oxirane, and later establishing his own chemical company, CasChem which would later be known as Cambrex Corporation. 

Delbert Meyer discusses his upbringing in Maynard, Iowa and his initial uncertainty about his future career, leading to his decision to serve for two years in the U. S. Navy. Later, his professors at Wartburg College and the University of Iowa encouraged his interest in chemistry, contributing to his thirty-nine years with Amoco. He started his career as an exploratory researcher then as a research consultant, eventually developing a faster and more economical method for producing purified terephthalic acid (PTA), and later winning the 1995 Perkin Medal. 

Matthew L. Meyerson was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the youngest of three children. His family moved several times before finally settling in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, when Matthew was seven. Meyerson's interest in science began early:  he loved to collect rocks and minerals and thought he might become a geologist. He decided early to attend Harvard University. He did research on quinones during college in Leslie Dutton's laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania and on enzyme evolution in Steven Benner's laboratory at Harvard. He spent a year in Japan at the University of Kyoto and then began medical school. Meyerson entered the joint health sciences and technology graduate program at Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Meyerson pursued doctoral research on cyclin-dependent kinases involved in cell-cycle regulation in Edward Harlow's laboratory at Harvard. Meyerson accepted a postdoctoral fellowship on cell immortalization in Robert Weinberg's laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), then accepted a position at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and set up his lab to accord with his decision to work on lung cancer genetics. Meyerson discusses his research on cancer genomics, functional biochemistry, and computational subtraction genetic analysis; and broader applications of his work genetically targeting drug treatment for lung cancer. 

Seymour Meyerson was born and raised in Chicago, Illinois and attended the University of Chicago from which he received his undergraduate degree. By 1943 Meyerson began active service with the U. S. military, spending the majority of his time with the Signal Corps; he also performed important work as the technical liaison officer between the Manhattan District and Standard Oil Company (Indiana). His time with the military afforded him the opportunity to be trained in electronics and to encounter his first mass spectrometer. In 1946 Meyerson started what would become a nearly forty year career with Standard Oil Company (Indiana) (later the Amoco Corporation). From the outset, Meyerson was involved with the mass spectrometry group, first conducting quantitative gas analysis on gases and low-boiling liquids, consisting of hydrocarbons and fixed gases. 

Catherine Hurt Middlecamp attended Cornell University, where women made up about one-fifth of the undergraduate student body. She graduated Phi Beta Kappa with a BA and a major in chemistry. She was selected as a Danforth Fellow for graduate study and chose to enroll at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where she entered Robert West's research lab on organosilicon chemistry. After finishing her Ph.D. , Middlecamp served for a year as a Danforth Teaching Intern at Knox College, then she took a faculty position at Hobart & William Smith Colleges before moving back to the University of Wisconsin, Madison. While there she developed (and still teaches) a general chemistry course for non-science majors, Chemistry in Context . In 2003, Middlecamp was elected chair of the Integrated Liberal Studies (ILS) program, a long-standing interdisciplinary certificate program on campus. The interview concludes with Middlecamp's views on teaching versus research, which she believes is a false dichotomy; what she believes are the many nefarious ways in which women are seen as unserious scholars; the undervaluation and dismissal of women and teaching; and the inherent difficulties of the tenure system. 

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