Leslie L. Vadasz begins the first interview by describing his childhood in Budapest during World War II. Vadasz developed an early interest in mathematics and literature, and began an undergraduate mechanical engineering program before continuing in solid state physics at McGill University in Montreal. Vadasz worked on metal oxide semiconductor transistors at Transitron Corporation before joining Fairchild Semiconductor, where he helped develop the silicon gate process. In the second interview, Vadasz details the early efforts to produce memory devices at Intel Corporation, including erasable programmable read-only memory. Vadasz continues with the transition of Intel Corporation into a divisionalized structure and international extensions, at which time he became Vice President. Vadasz recounts his role as general manager of the microcomputer components division and its interactions with the semiconductor industry in the third interview. Vadasz began serving on the Board of Directors in 1988 and describes its place in assisting Intel management. He also explains the foundation of Intel Capital. Vadasz concludes the interview with remarks on the importance of technical knowledge in both developmental and managerial work.
This oral history with Gordon T. Moore and Jay T. Last focuses on the years 1956 and 1957, during which time Moore and Last worked at Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory and Fairchild Semiconductor was founded. This transcript is about the life of ideas and the people who brought those ideas to fruition; Moore and Last reflect on their experiences during these years while flipping through an old notebook that documented various aspects of the meetings they had over an eighteen month period. In order to fully understand this oral history, the reader must consult the Supplement to Gordon E. Moore and Jay T. Last Oral History, oral history number 0327S, which is also part of the Chemical Heritage Foundation's collection. A copy of the supplement is included with a purchase of this oral history.
Carver A. Mead begins with a review of his family history and his childhood near a power plant in Kernville, California. He discusses his early interest in electronics, which included getting his ham radio license and working for local radio stations during high school. Mead studied electrical engineering at the California Institute of Technology and was invited to teach during graduate school, where he took up solid state electronics. In 1959 Gordon Moore contacted Mead, beginning an informal technical exchange while Moore was at Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel Corporation. Mead conducted transistor research, and also pioneered automated design methodologies for VLSI devices. While consulting with Intel Corporation, Mead came to know its internal business culture and management style as well as the economics of the silicon manufacture. Mead discusses his long history of entrepreneurial activity, which continues to the present day.
Robert N. Naughten grew up in rural California during the Great Depression. He attended Sequoia High School and met Gordon Moore partially through football and swimming. Moore and Naughten commuted from home to San Jose State University for two years before moving to University of California, Berkeley. The two became roommates and were part of the co-op program. Upon graduating from the pre-med program Naughten was called to participate in the Naval Reserve's effort in the Korean War. After returning from two tours in Korea, Naughten migrated to the East Coast to attend medical school at Hahnemann University in Philadelphia. Returning to California for an internship at Highland General Hospital, Naughten and his family endured several years of economic hardship before he opened a private practice in Los Gatos, California. Naughten and Moore only reconnected at a recent Berkeley alumni event. Naughten concluded the interview with reflections on the philanthropic contributions of Gordon and Betty Moore and traits that make Gordon Moore an ideal CEO.
Robert Robson begins the interview with a discussion about growing up in South Dakota. He discusses his education, his involvement with the Army, and his early interest in electronics. He also details his move to California and his involvement with the electronics industry. He describes his employment at Farnsworth Electronics Incorporated and Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation. He describes his interaction with Robert Noyce, Gordon Moore, Andrew Grove, and several other prominent industry leaders. At Fairchild, Robson became production superintendent of the Special Products Group. He left Fairchild after working there for four years. Robson continues the interview by describing his relationship with the semiconductor industry, along with his employment at Amelco, Teledyne, Intersil, and Microma. Robson was manufacturing manager at Amelco, and went on to found Microma, where they worked on the digital watch at its beginning. After two years, Robson sold Microma to Intel and bought a thousand-acre ranch where he and his wife, Sharleen, farm nuts. Finally, he discusses his friendship with Gordon and Betty Moore, describing fishing and hunting trips they took together.
Audrey Rust begins her oral history with a discussion of her love of Nature and how she came to work for the Peninsula Open Space Trust (POST). The vast majority of her interview is focused on her work with POST, even though she only planned to stay there long enough to get the organization going. Now, twenty years into her position there, she reflects fondly on the projects that helped the organization grow from a staff of three to almost thirty. Most importantly, Rust emphasizes the contribution of those individuals most connected to the land they were trying to preserve. She details the involvement of Gordon and Betty Moore in the initiatives of POST and the support of the Moore Foundation. Rust discusses how integral they were to the success of POST and their influence on the way that POST operates today. Rust sees a bold future ahead for POST and details an interesting method for preservation through personal relationships, creative funding, and an ambitious but detailed plan.
Harry Sello begins the first interview with a review of his childhood which included emigration from Russia and a strong emphasis on education in his household. Sello quickly became interested in chemistry and completed undergraduate work in organic chemistry before applying this knowledge to his PhD research on the rearrangement of single molecules at the University of Missouri. He completed service in the United States Navy and modeled scaling-up procedures of flammable compounds at Shell Development Company. William Shockley recruited him to Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory, from which he departed on suspicion of connection to the founders of Fairchild Semiconductor. At Shockley and then at Fairchild, Sello worked on a variety of chemical aspects of semiconductor manufacturing. At Fairchild Semiconductor, Sello concentrated on the transfer of silicon transistor technology to Societa Generale Semiconduttore in Italy, negotiating cultural and industrial boundaries. Sello remained with Fairchild Semiconductor during its decline, reorganizing research and production. In 1980, he began Harry Sello Associates after Fairchild Semiconductor was sold to Schlumberger Exploration. Sello concludes the interview with reflections on his current role as an expert witness.
Kenneth F. Siebel begins the interview with a discussion of his undergraduate studies at the University of Wisconsin and his enrollment in graduate business studies at the same institution after abandoning professional basketball. MBA in hand, Siebel began working for Smith Barney but shortly formed his own investment banking firm Robertson, Coleman, and Siebel in 1969. While building it into a highly successful firm, he underwrote many now famous technology companies and learned the technology sector. From 1977 onward, Siebel parlayed the lessons of the 1970s into his own money management firm. The conversation then turns to Siebel's commitment to conservation and his involvement in Conservation International, for which he expresses many accolades in pioneering new conservation techniques, notably through the Center for Applied Biodiversity Science. It was through Conservation International that Siebel became friends with another board member, Gordon E. Moore, whose credibility and financial support, Siebel suggests, have greatly expanded Conservation International's efforts. Siebel then expresses ideas on addressing a future challenge of conservation groups: the need to collaborate effectively. Finally, the interview focuses on the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, from its launch through Siebel's present-day involvement as a board member. Siebel praises Gordon E. Moore's unique approach to tackling issues that can be effectively handled, like the Betty Irene Moore Nursing Initiative. Siebel still sees more challenges for conservation ahead, but believes the involvement of the Moore children on the foundation's board will keep it anchored to Gordon and Betty Moore's values and approach. Siebel concludes the exchange with some closing comments on Gordon E. Moore.
Ronald Duarte begins the interview by discussing his family history, and how the family came to settle in Pescadero, California. Duarte and Gordon E. Moore grew up together in Pescadero, until Moore and his family moved away in the late 1930s. Duarte and Moore attended the same grammar school, although Moore was a year older than Duarte and they did not take any classes together. Duarte recalls fond memories of Moore’s mother, and memories of Moore’s two brothers. Duarte and Moore kept in touch for a time after Moore moved to Redwood City, California, from Pescadero, and now they only see each other when Moore visits Pescadero.
William H. Davidow begins the interview by describing his early interest in science and technology. After a five-year program and obtaining his MS in electrical engineering at Dartmouth College, Davidow decided to pursue science over business and enrolled in the California Institute of Technology. After obtaining his MS at Caltech and his PhD at Stanford University, Davidow worked at General Electric on peripheral devices. Davidow realized that his talent was in marketing rather than science, and moved on to marketing positions. After working at Hewlett-Packard and Signetics Memory Systems, Davidow moved to Intel and became responsible for marketing of its microprocessor development systems. Eventually Davidow was charged with running the microprocessor division, and embarked on a massive marketing campaign called “Operation Crush.” After the success of Operation Crush Davidow moved to work in Intel’s marketing and sales division; this is the time period during which increasing Japanese competition forced Intel to withdraw from the memory business and focus of microprocessors. Davidow concludes the interview by offering his thoughts on Moore’s Law, interactions and philanthropic work associated with Moore, and the impact Gordon Moore has had on Davidow’s life.
Thomas E. Everhart’s oral history begins with a discussion of his work with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Everhart talks about Gordon E. Moore’s contributions to the electronics world. He describes his time as president of California Institute of Technology (Caltech). At the end of the first session, Everhart discusses his admiration for Moore.
His second interview starts with his childhood in Missouri. He discusses his family, hobbies, and school. He talks about work, the Methodist Youth Fellowship, where he met his future wife, and his desire to go to Harvard.
Everhart entered Harvard University and shortly after starting was offered the Gerrish Scholarship, for all four years. At Harvard he played intramural basketball; was active in the Wesley Foundation; helped found the Crimson Key Society; and became engaged. He majored in physics, helped set up laboratories, but had no opportunities for research. After graduation he went to University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) for a master’s degree, in conjunction with Hughes Aircraft Company, where he focused on applied physics and engineering. There he first began working with electron beams. For his PhD he went to Clare College, University of Cambridge, funded by Marshall Scholarship, and working in Charles W. Oatley’s lab. His dissertation dealt with SEM contrast formation, observed voltage contrast across P-N junctions, and explored potential applications.
PhD in hand, Everhart became an assistant professor of electrical engineering at University of California, Berkeley. Initially working on microwave tubes. With Donald O. Pederson and Paul L. Morton, they founded the first integrated circuit (IC) lab. During his years at Berkeley, Everhart consulted for Watkins-Johnson, Ampex, Westinghouse Research Laboratories, and Hughes Aircraft Company. He took leave to help Oliver Wells build a SEM at Westinghouse Research Labs. He built his own SEM, the first with transistorized circuits. He had funding from the Air Force, the National Institutes of Health (NIH); and from the National Science Foundation (NSF). He also progressed to full professor and then to chairman of the electrical engineering and computer science (EECS) department. While he was chairman of EECS, the NSF wanted to establish an accessible microfabrication facility. Berkeley did not take advantage of this opportunity, instead the lab went to Cornell University.
Everhart left Berkeley to become Dean of Engineering at Cornell University. He felt he greatly improved the engineering college’s morale, faculty, and financial position. During his tenure, the Knight Laboratory, the Snee building, and the Pew Engineering Quadrangle were dedicated. He worked on the advisory committee for the submicron facility, funded by NSF. After six and a half years at Cornell, Everhart was offered the chancellorship of the University of Illinois. There he started new programs, helped get personal computers for faculty, and improved the facilities for semiconductors. He also encouraged the founding of the Beckman Institute.
After three years, Everhart was chosen to be president of Caltech, a position he held for ten years. At Caltech he was also on the advisory committee for micro devices at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Throughout the interview Everhart explains his relationships with many scientists and their work. He remains amazed by the speed of evolution of transistors to integrated circuits and he exclaims over the continued validity of Moore’s Law.
Eugene J. Flath was born in Green Bay, Wisconsin but moved to Rockford, Illinois, at age eight. He often went to work with his father, who was an electrical engineer, but who worked for a while on the coal dock in Green Bay. Flath loved all the “things” associated with his father's work and wanted to be an electrical engineer himself. He was always tinkering with “things,” making gas-powered engines for planes or taking apart watches. He attended a Catholic boys' school, where he was interested in science and mathematics. He matriculated at the University of Wisconsin, where he joined the Naval Reserve Officers' Training Corps (NROTC) because he believed he should be in the military somehow and because he could not otherwise afford college. The professor of Flath's class in transistors used his students' class notes for his textbook; from that class Flath decided he wanted to be a circuit designer. During college he also worked with FORTRAN in early analog computers. Most importantly, he met his wife to be. After graduating, Flath went immediately to Long Beach, California, to spend two years on a destroyer. After his first year he went back to Wisconsin to marry; he and his wife returned to California so Flath could finish his obligation to the Navy. Not enjoying the work on the destroyer, he changed to the Civil Engineer Corps and was transferred to the Portsmouth, New Hampshire, shipyard, where he worked on submarines. Having a great deal of free time, he began classes part time at the University of New Hampshire with backing from the U. S. Navy. When he left the Navy he finished his degree; his thesis dealt with converting FM signal to AM; from there he got into semiconductors. Now with two children, he realized he needed to get a job. Flath received offers from International Business Machines (IBM) in East Fishkill, New York, and Fairchild Semiconductor in Mountain View, California. He found IBM's culture to be formal and reserved, while Fairchild's was more informal and comfortable; in addition, there were the locations to consider. Flath accepted the position of product engineer at Fairchild. Over the years, he worked his way up and around the “matrix” structure of Fairchild to become general manager of digital integrated circuits (DIC). At first he found the “back of the envelope” approach exciting and productive, but as the field settled down and in, he began to find the trial and error frustrating. In addition, there was growing competition within the company. When Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore left to found their own company (Noyce Moore Electronics, later Intel), Flath offered his services and was immediately snapped up. Intel began with static RAM but then moved into DRAM. Flath went to Intel Japan, where he stayed for three years, during the evolution of EPROMs. Other companies were by now beginning to compete with Intel, and Flath organized a deal with Mitsubishi to produce EPROMs that Intel could brand with their own name, making Intel's prices competitive. Then Intel moved out of memory and into production of microprocessors. Flath came back from Japan knowing that he would no longer be comfortable at Intel, and he retired. After working for some years in venture capital he retired from that also and now works in his community.
Dov Frohman begins the interview by describing his early separation from his parents in the Netherlands due to World War II. After moving between several orphanages, Frohman was adopted by relatives and attended primary and secondary schools in Israel. Fascinated by electrons, Frohman attended the Technion University and majored in electrical engineering. After working for a brief stint in Israel, Frohman moved to the United States to pursue a master's degree in EE at the University of California, Berkeley. Frohman then described accepting and working at Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation for two years before returning to Berkeley as a part-time student to complete his PhD program. After obtaining his doctoral degree in computer sciences, Frohman joined Intel, a start-up founded by former Fairchild employees. While at Intel Frohman was assigned to investigate instability problems in MOS (metal-oxide semiconductor) memories that led to the invention of EPROM (erasable-programmable read only memory). With EPROM gaining commercial success, Frohman spent a year as visiting professor at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology before returning to Intel in the United States. Fueled by his lifelong desire to return to Israel, Frohman convinced Gordon Moore and other Intel executives to invest in a development center in Jerusalem. Frohman then spent the next seven years teaching applied physics at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem while consulting for Intel Israel. The Intel investment was a success and at 1981 Frohman took a leave of absence from the University and became the first manager of Intel Israel's new fabrication plant. As Intel Israel's operations expanded, Frohman's role expanded as well to become Manager of Intel Israel and Vice President of the Microprocessor Products Group within Intel. Frohman concludes the interview by offering impression of the role Intel played in development of the semiconductor and technology-based industries in Israel; tips on maintaining open communications between Intel Israel and Intel headquarters in Santa Clara, California, and final reflections on Gordon Moore.
Robert T. Jenkins (Ted) grew up in Glendale, California, the suburb of Los Angeles in which his parents and grandparents had also grown up. His father was a welder, and Ted always liked to help him with his work. Together they built a swimming pool in their back yard. Jenkins also loved ham radio and cannot remember when he was not interested in electricity. He earned both his BS in engineering (there were no divisions within engineering at the time) and his MS from California Institute of Technology. While he was there he worked in the lab of Carver Mead, his advisor, and took a comprehensive business course from Horace Gilbert. While Jenkins was in the lab Gordon Moore came to talk to Carver Mead, recruiting likely students for his company, Fairchild Semiconductor. He told Jenkins about his bipolar power transistor, and Ted became very interested. He went right from his master's degree to Fairchild, beginning in the process end of the linear integrated circuit group in Research and Development. All new employees were required to take a technology course at Fairchild, taught by Andrew Grove, Edward Snow, and Leslie Vadasz; Jenkins calls it better than a PhD.” At Fairchild, Jenkins and Garth Wilson developed and patented Schottky-barrier diode processes and devices. Half seriously, Carver Mead called the Schottky diode the Jenkins diode. Jenkins later used a Schottky diode in the design of Intel's first product, the i3101 64-bit TTL compatible RAM. Introduced in 1969, the device was nearly twice as fast as earlier TTL products.
When Jenkins had been at Fairchild for about two years, Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore left to found their own company, Noyce-Moore Electronics (or Moore-Noyce, which they thought sounded too much like "more noise," an inauspicious name for an electronics company), whose name they changed to Intel (INTegrated ELectronics) later that year. Moore recruited a number of others from Fairchild, including Jenkins, who came in originally to help develop blue LED. He held a number of positions, working on wafers, until he was made manager of peripherals manufacturing. Intel's first product used Jenkins' Schottky diode, which doubled the speed and reduced the power consumed. Soon thereafter Jenkins became general manager of the whole peripheral components division. From there he moved to become a vice president and the general manager of the memory components division. He selected the Folsom site, within a day's drive from Santa Clara, for new fabrication plants, and explains that the Oregon site was chosen because it was not on the San Andreas Fault line. He spent his last ten years at Intel as a vice president and as director of corporate licensing. After retiring from Intel he reentered the academic world, becoming an adjunct professor at California State University at Sacramento and joining the Board of Trustees of California Institute of Technology.
R. Victor Jones grew up in Oakland, California, son of Welsh immigrants. His father was a machinist, and Victor learned many useful mechanical skills from him. From a young age Jones was interested in physics, reading a great deal about the new fields of atomic and nuclear physics. He also liked to build things, his largest creation being an oscilloscope. He attended local public schools, where he says he was an indifferent student, except in physics and chemistry, which he loved.
Jones matriculated into the University of California, Berkeley, at which point he began to enjoy studying and to work hard. He entered the lab of Walter Knight, where he worked in the new field of nuclear magnetic resonance, and discovered the joy of doing research and of intellectual discourse.
Jones continued into graduate school at Berkeley in great part because there were few jobs. He worked in Carson Jeffries's lab, where his thesis work dealt with electron transport in a molecular afterglow. The Korean War again initiated a demand for sophisticated electronics, and Jones accepted a job with Bell [Telephone] Laboratories, where he would be able to pursue his work in gas discharge. He was finishing his thesis work when William Shockley walked into his lab and began asking questions. An intense afternoon and evening of discussion with Shockley led into aggressive recruitment until Jones finally accepted Shockley's offer of a job at the new Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory.
Shockley believed semiconductors were the wave of the future, and he espoused diffused-base technology. Shockley insisted on using only silicon, which at that time was extremely difficult to work with. He at once put Jones to work on the four-layer diode; he also used Jones to help him recruit other scientists. There were difficulties encountered in getting the lab started, though he was able to recruit a number of scientists. From the outset, lab work was compartmentalized and Shockley frequently changed the goals of the lab. From Jones's perspective, Shockley was a genius that was shortsighted because he had no use for magnetic resonance.
Uncomfortable in the high-stress atmosphere of the lab and wanting to work with his primary interest, electromagnetic theory, Jones decided after only two years to look for work in the academy, where he expected to be able to decompress. Arnold Beckman, one of Shockley's financiers, tried to hire Jones as a liaison to Shockley, but Jones turned Beckman down. Instead, inspired by John Van Vleck's teaching, Jones accepted a position at Harvard University. He spent almost fifty years there, teaching electronics. His own work for his first twenty years there revolved around magnetism, but he then took up optics.
At the end of the interview Jones discusses his insights into William Shockley and the deterioration of their relationship; the development of semiconductor electronics; his own theory of a "planar metaphor" giving rise to a host of technological development; the importance of crystal growth and the lesson of semiconductors, viz. have good material; the underappreciated importance of a systematic, if time-consuming, approach in science as evidenced by Bell Labs' ten-year development of laser diodes. He describes how his reading of Leslie Berlin's recent book about Robert Noyce has led him to renew acquaintanceships with some of the other early scientists at Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory. He concludes by reiterating that Shockley, at least "one of the most complicated" scientists of the time, made invaluable contributions to physics.
Donald L. Klein is the son of a Hungarian father and a Hungarian-American mother, who grew up in Brooklyn, New York. With his childhood friend, Neil Wotherspoon, Klein developed an early passion for chemistry, electronics, and amateur radio, interests that would follow him throughout his life and career. At Brooklyn Technical High School, he discovered an additional passion for metallurgy. He completed his undergraduate degree in chemistry at Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn (now Polytechnic Institute of New York University), then found a job in the semiconductor industry to support his new wife (who also received a degree in chemistry). After working for a couple of years, he pursued a graduate degree at the University of Connecticut to study photochemistry under Dr. Roland Ward. Klein was recruited to work for Bell Laboratories, and began working on the production of semiconductors. His group was involved in involved in developing etching techniques for semiconductors and methods to prevent different types of contamination in semiconductor production. In February 1966, Klein was in charge of a brainstorming session with several other Bell scientists to design a better process for building FET devices. They first identified the problems with current models and processes; out of that meeting came the idea of using a heavily doped polycrystalline silicon layer as the gate of an FET. The gate was to be supported on dual layers of a silicon nitride and silicon dioxide serving as the gate insulator. Using the FET as a model for integrated circuits, they fabricated and characterized hundreds of FET devices at high yield that exhibited close electrical tolerances. Klein and his colleagues published several papers on their new technology, and applied for patents on their process, though Bell's management was slow to appreciate the breakthrough its scientists had made. After a restructuring, Klein left Bell to work for IBM. The rest of the industry, however, was quick to adopt and improve the silicon gate technology. There were legal disputes throughout the 1970s, but by that time Klein was at IBM developing photoresist technologies and more efficient processes for manufacturing electronic packaging.
Jay T. Last begins the interview with a description of his family background and youth during the Great Depression and World War II. He reviews his undergraduate education at the University of Rochester and his graduate work in the von Hippel lab at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. There he completed doctoral research on the structure of barium titanate under an IBM fellowship. He was later invited to join Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory. He soon departed as one of the “Traitorous Eight” to form Fairchild Semiconductor, where he focused on the etching process for the mesa transistor. During this time, Last formed a close friendship with Jean A. Hoerni and began collecting African art. Last then supervised the creation of the integrated circuit. In 1961, he left Fairchild Semiconductor to join Teledyne to create more elaborate circuits. Teledyne mass-produced complex circuits for military, private corporations, and internal use. Last reviews the business climate of Silicon Valley that supported numerous spin-offs and discusses the dynamics of the American and international semiconductor industries. He then recounts his private investments, including that in Intel Corporation, and relates Gordon E. Moore's contributions to Intel Corporation. Last concludes with his personal involvement with the Archeological Conservancy, his African art collection, and publishing.
Russell A. Mittermeier discusses the involvement of Gordon E. Moore in Conservation International over the previous eighteen years. He reviews Moore's increasing support of the organization, especially his contribution to building the Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, which has since produced many influential conservation theories. He describes Moore as a good match with Conservation International given Moore's appreciation of its scientific approach and organizational management. Mittermeier then highlights Moore's steady hand leading the board of directors and transforming the organization. Lastly, Mittermeier reflects on how Moore's experience at Conservation International influenced the founding of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and notes the Moores' influence in attracting Silicon Valley to the cause of conservation.
John C. Martin begins the interview by describing Gilead when he first joined in 1990. Martin recalls first crossing paths with Gordon E. Moore when he joined the board and became CEO of Gilead around the same time period as Moore joining the board. Martin then reflected on serving on the Gilead board with Donald Rumsfeld and Moore; Moore's experiences at Intel helped shaped polices of the compensation committee and audit committee on which he served. Next Martin discussed Gilead's no-profit tiered pricing policy and the impact it has on developing countries. Martin concludes the interview by offering thoughts on Moore's corporate role as a scientist and his day-to-day personality.
Julius Blank begins the interview with a look at his childhood and early education. He graduated high school at the age of fifteen and began taking classes at the City College of New York while working various jobs. When Blank turned eighteen, he enlisted and was sent to Europe to serve during the end of World War II. When he came home he finished college with the aid of the GI Bill and received a degree in mechanical engineering. Blank worked as an engineer at Babcock and Wilcox Company in Ohio, and then moved to Goodyear Aircraft. After two years, he and his wife moved back to New York where Blank got a job at Western Electric. In 1956, Blank was asked to join Shockley Semiconductor in California. He and his family moved to Palo Alto, where Blank worked on crystal growing for Shockley. Blank met Gordon Moore at Shockley, and eventually joined Moore and six other Shockley colleagues to form Fairchild Semiconductor. Blank first worked on crystal growing and research and development at Fairchild, but later helped set up assembly plants overseas. In 1969 Blank left Fairchild to become an independent consultant. Blank concludes the interview with some final thoughts on Gordon Moore.